26 Most Common & Universal Essays (Topics) Asked in PMS/CSS & other Competitive Exams




  • It is not possible to fix meaning

Supporting Arguments

  • Understanding of life vanes from person to person
  • Failure has different meanings for different persons
  • Every person has his own way of thinking
  • Struggle has multiple meanings
  • Specific meaning and parameter cannot be fixed
  • Meanings of gestures are not same in the world
  • Meaning of knowledge for a literate and Illiterate cannot be equal
  • Money has different meanings for the rich and the poor
  •  Meaning of religion is different for a believer and a non-believer
  • Machine means a symbol of progress for scientists
  • Red color has different meanings
  • Music means food for soul for music lovers, but it is a nuisance for others
  • There are different forms of government in different countries
  • Capitalism is a blessing for a few and curse for other        
  • Perception of women is different in different societies



It is impossible to fix meaning. Different words have different meanings. This world is naturally progressive. Meanings of certain words change with the passage of time. There are many words in English language which have more than one meaning of a word ‘Apprehend’ is to catch or arrest. It also means to understand. So, a single meaning cannot be fixed for a particular word. Many activities in life have different meanings for human beings. An adventurous person considers mountain climbing a source of enjoyment. It is full of pleasure for him. On the contrary, it might be a cumbersome task for a person who is not interested in such an adventure. It is highly refreshing for a person to swim in a deep river. At the same time, it can be a foolish act for another person. Hence, meaning cannot be fixed because people take things according to their own perception.

Moreover, understanding of life varies from person to person. Some people face many difficulties in life. They have to workday and night to fulfil their wishes. Life means a bed of thorns for such people. They must pay a heavy price for what they achieve in life, while some people are born with a silver spoon in their mouth. They enjoy every luxury of life. Life means a bed of roses for these blessed ones.

Similarly, failure has different meanings for different people. People having strong will face their defeat courageously. They always learn from their mistakes. They get rid of their shortcomings and success becomes their destiny. Some people have low motivation level. They cannot accept their fault. They are not ready to improve themselves. Failure impacts them negatively. These people often remain behind in the struggle of life. So, failure does not have same meaning for people. Hence, meaning can never be fixed.

Besides, every person has his own way of thinking. Some people cannot bear criticism. Criticism means insult for them. On the other hand, criticism is a tool of correction for strong minds. They take it positively. They believe that criticism throws out impurities of life. Sometimes, they ask critics to evaluate their performance for correction.

In the same manner, struggle also has multiple meanings. An honest person always believes in struggle. Struggle means the only way to success for him. He only uses fair means to achieve his aim in life, while struggle is a useless thing for a deceiver. He always tries to take advantage of his cleverness. He cheats and hoodwinks others for his interests. Struggle has no value for him.

Likewise, one cannot fix specific meaning and parameter in life. Two brothers may not have same style of working. In fact, many candidates qualify CSS exam every year. Success has no fixed meaning for them. A group of candidates may consider success a source to grab power, while another group may take it as an opportunity to serve the country. Even mode of preparation varies from candidate to candidate. Thus, meaning and procedure cannot be fixed for anything.

Furthermore, meanings of gestures are not same in the world. It is an honor for Chinese and Japanese to bow while meeting a person. They consider it a way of respecting others. The same gesture can be pathetic and humiliating for the Europeans. A salute by a junior means a sign of respect for a senior officer in forces. He can get angry if his junior does not salute him. The same gesture has no value for a civilian officer. Salute has no importance for him. As a result, meaning cannot be fixed.

In addition, money has different meanings for both the rich and the poor. Money means a source of pleasure and entertainment for a rich person. He has millions of rupees and money is less important for him. He has no tension when the prices of things go up. Inflation does not affect him, but money means life or survival for a poor man. He works for many hours to earn his livelihood. His difficulties increase when the prices of things rise. Inflation affects his purchasing power.

Knowledge is a matter of life and death for a literate. An educated person works hard to enhance his knowledge. Such a person gathers every piece of information which may help him in his life. In fact, he knows that only knowledge can make him superior to others. Contrary to this, knowledge means nothing for an illiterate. He puts up no efforts to get knowledge. He is not ready to take pains for learning.

In the same way, religion is the most important thing for a believer. He respects his religion from the core of his heart. A real believer also allows others to follow and practice their religion. He embraces the restrictions imposed by religion happily. He considers his life purposeless without religion. On the other hand, religion means a chain that limits freedom for a non-believer. Non-believers do not have any inclination to follow religion. They consider it an unnecessary thing in life.

Machine is a symbol of progress for scientists. They invented certain machines which facilitated human life. Scientists believe. that machines have revolutionized man’s life. Devices have speeded up the pace of progress in life. Literary whets give different meanings to machines. They are of the view that these devices are more troublesome than they are worth. Machines need human hands to operate. They have further increased human labor. Human beings maintain these machines. The literati opine that machine have made men their slaves. Machines have brought men away from nature. Modem devices are responsible for hollowness of man, in such situation, it is not beneficial to fix meaning.

In the same fashion, red color has various meanings for different people in society. Red color is a symbol of love for some people. Red rose is often presented to loved ones. While others consider red color a sign of danger. A group of people wear red shirts in Thailand. It may be a symbol of revolution for them. People’s perception of a single color is different. This very color is the color of blood. Blood is a sign of life. There is no life without blood. At the same time. it can be a symbol of war and conflict. In this diverse world, it is not appreciable to fix meaning.

Music is food for soul for music lovers. They consider it a part and parcel of their life. They listen to the songs of their favorite singers and feel fresh. Some people also like certain musicians and their symphonies. There are some human beings who declare music a nuisance. They do not like it. They consider it a waste of time. Some of them are of the view that it is one of the major causes of noise pollution.

Adding more to it there are many forms of government in different countries of the world. There is a parliamentary form of government. A group of politicians claims that parliamentary system is better than presidential one. They are of the view that former is more democratic than the latter. Their opponents favor presidential system. History is evident that both the systems have been successful in certain countries. Parliamentary system succeeded in England. While presidential system proved successful in the US. Hence, meaning cannot be fixed.

Truly speaking, capitalism is a blessing for some and a curse for others. Some countries like America, Britain and Pakistan favor it. These countries believe that a person can accumulate as much amount of wealth as he can. It depends upon the efforts of a person how much he earns; China and Russia do not support capitalism. Such countries declare it irrational. These countries have socialist behavior. In such contradicting environment, it is not wise to fix meaning.

Finally, perception of woman is not same in different societies. Women get respect and honor in enlightened societies. She has equal opportunities in life. She is not treated as subhuman. Women have played a vital role in the progress of developed countries. On the other hand, condition of women in the Third World countries is highly deplorable. She is kept within the four walls of houses. She has no say in decision making. She is only there to serve men. So, human perception of woman varies from region to region. In such situation, one cannot fix meaning.

To conclude, it can be said that it is not possible to fix meaning. Meanings of words are different in different cultures and societies. Human perception about life and happiness is not the same. Some things which are of utmost importance for one have no value for others. This world is heterogeneous. A single criterion cannot be fixed even for a similar task. In the end, it is imperative not to fix meaning in this ever-changing world.



Introduction a Terrorism is a global issue. It has wreaked havoc in Pakistan.


  • Poverty, economic deprivation, and unemployment
  • Wrong interpretation of religion
  • Intolerant behavior and attitude
  • Conservative mindset
  • Ill-treatment of Third World countries by great powers
  • Vested interests of different countries in promoting terrorism
  • Improper treatment of IDPs
  • Drone attacks


  • A death blow to economy
  • Less foreign direct investment
  • Destruction of infrastructure
  • Insecurity among people
  • Child labor and slavery
  • Declining tourism an Increase in expenses of state a Loss of lives

Remedial Measures

  • Improvement in education sector      
  • Registration of Madaris
  • Criticism of terrorism in society
  • Improvement in training of security personnel
  • Proper use of technology
  • Consensus among people to consider war against terrorism as our own war
  • Role of media in bringing awareness about the consequences of terrorism/



Terrorism is a global issue. It has far-reaching socio-economic implications. It is threatening very peace of the world. In Pakistan, terrorism has destroyed the socio. economic fabric of the country. On the one hand, terrorism has provided an impetus to extremism and sectarianism; on the other, it has caused huge losses to people and the state. Sixty thousand people have lost their lives in different terror attacks in Pakistan and its economic losses are countless. It can be said that terrorism has wreaked havoc in the country. Law and order situation has deteriorated owing to terrorism. Terrorism has become a threat to Pakistan’s sovereignty. Economy of the state has borne the brunt of this issue. Many businessmen have left the country for lack of security and business friendly environment. Foreign direct investment is touching its lowest ebb. Investors feel shy off investing in this volatile region. Pakistan has been a frontline state in war against terror. So, it must bear the wrath of terrorist on daily basis. Terrorist attack public places, mosques, imam bargahs, churches, temples, and schools. Such attacks have deadly socio-economic implications for the people of Pakistan. However, this issue needs immediate steps in right direction. Military operation alone cannot serve the purpose in this regard. Terrorism is an ideology which should be crushed at gross root level. Government, media and educated ones have an important responsibility on their shoulders. Similarly, proper rehabilitation of terror-affected people can also help in curbing this issue. Whole nation should develop a consensus to root out terrorism. God forbid, if required steps are not taken timely, this monster will engulf the peace and harmony of the country.

There are many causes of terrorism. Poverty, unemployment, and economic deprivation are major culprits in this regard. Poverty and unemployment deeply affect one’s thinking capability. A person facing financial crunch can easily fall a prey to terrorist ideology. A poor one becomes unidirectional. He loses patience and tolerance on trivial issues. This gives rise to frustration and depression. Frustrated people become violent. They stand against the socio-economic norms of the day and spread terror to fulfil their wishes.

Moreover, conservative mind-set and misinterpretation of religious teachings breed terrorism in Pakistan. People do not like innovation in society. Their thinking is stereotype. They hardly bear new ideas. Certain mullahs have conservative mind-set They declare Americans responsible for all ills in society. They often interpret Quranic verses as per their own desires. They always stress on struggle (jihad) with sword. They have failed to make people realize that Islam is the religion of peace. In this modern era, this is domain of security forces to protect the borders of the country. There are few ulema (scholars) but more mullahs in our society. They often misguide people and turn them violent.

Similarly, extremism and sectarianism have further aggravated the situation. It is a common phenomenon that people are devoid of patience and endurance. They do not bother to consider both sides of the coin while taking decisions. Disagreement is not welcomed in society. People are ignorant of the fact that difference of opinion is the beauty of life. People are divided into Sunnis, Shias, Wahabis and Deobandi. There prevails feeling of hatred among different sects. Terrorists exploit these feelings and use people in different terror activities.

Furthermore, ill treatment of Third World countries at the hand of great powers fuels the fire of terrorism in the world. The US and its allies invaded Iraq for their nefarious designs. They hanged people’s leaders. It is rightly said, “every action has a reaction but in opposite direction.” People of Iraq have grievances and sentiments against the west. They consider them aggressors and usurpers. They want to take revenge. Such sentiments further pave the way for terrorism.

Likewise, a few countries promote terrorism in other countries to protect their interests. It would not be wrong to say that Saudi Arabia and Iran treat Pakistan as a battleground to settle their score. It is quite strange that both the countries maintain law and order in their own areas. But they support violence in Pakistan by providing aid to seminaries of their own version of Islam. There is sectarian divide in the country due to this situation. Followers of one sect declare other infidels. They do not even feel shame in killing their fellow beings in the name of religion. Such atrocities cement the foundation of terrorism in the country.

In addition to it, wrong policies of previous governments sowed the seeds of terrorism in the land of innocent people. Mujahedeen were trained with the help of Americans to fight Russians in Afghanistan in a dictator’s regime. They were fed and kept beside Afghan border as heroes of war. Russia was defeated because America succeeded in its aim. The so-called mujahedeen were left on their own. They joined different organizations and Al-Qaeda is a glaring example in this respect. When America invaded Afghanistan after 9/11 attack, the heroes of war stood beside Al-Qaeda and its allies. They launched certain terrorist attacks in Pakistan to destabilize the country. The country learnt a lesson in shape of terrorism.

Finally, ill treatment of IDPS and drone attacks further fan the flames of terrorism in the country, Pakistani security forces launched many operations in FATA nod adjacent avens. People find to leave their house, business, crops, and all means of survival. They were at the mercy of the state. They were not taken care of properly. Some of them joined terrorists and added to the difficulties of state. Besides it, drone attacks are counterproductive. Civilians are also killed in drone attacks. Relatives of these civilians stand against the government and promote terrorism.

There are many effects of terrorism in Pakistan. The major effect of terrorism is absence of peace in society. Terrorism has restricted social mobility. People feel afraid of going outside. They are hesitant to visit mosques and other places of worship. Whenever a bomb blast takes place, it affects people’s psyche. As a result, people have lost peace of mind and hemi. They are confused or feel insecure out of houses.

Besides this, different terrorist activities badly tarnish the image of country worldwide. Pakistanis arc not welcomed in the west. They are disrespected at international airports. Foreigners consider them suspicious. They must undergo different checks to enter a foreign country. In fact, green passport has lost its real value owing to this menace of terrorism. Overseas Pakistanis face a lot of troubles abroad. This is disappointing.

Terrorism is a death blow to the economy of the state. Pakistan must spend a lot of money on security issues. Certain walls of the government institutions have been repaired  and different barriers are installed at the entrance of the institutions. The government has increased security at markets, hospitals, schools, and shops. Buildings which are destroyed are built again. Government must spend public money on bullets and tanks when operations are launched against terrorists. All these extra expenses burden the economy which is already fragile and dependent on foreign aid.

In the same fashion, many people have lost their lives in suicide bombing and bomb blasts. Some families have been deprived of their breadwinners. When a breadwinner dies, there are socio-economic implications for the whole family and society members of such families are forced to commit crimes to meet their needs. These criminal activities create chaos and anarchy in society. A few people send their children to work which results in child labor and slavery. Society keeps on suffering due to terrorism.

Adding more to it, terrorism has restricted tourist activities in Pakistan. Since 9/11, there has been a continuous decline in tourism. Many foreign tourists are killed in Pakistan. So, this situation has kept tourists at a distance from Pakistan. Business related to tourism has received a huge setback in Pakistan. Many tourist guides are wandering in search of livelihood. They are left empty stomach. This is an alarming situation. It can tempt people related to tourism to involve in anti-state activities. So, tourist activities have gone down owing to terrorism.

Terrorism has badly impacted educational institutions in the country. Terrorists have brutally killed many children in schools. Buildings of educational institutions are blown up. Provincial governments are forced to suspend educational activities. Terrorist attack on Army Public School, Peshawar left indelible effects on people’s psyche.

Nowadays, people are always concerned about the security of school-going children. Terrorism has also left negative impacts on the minds of innocent children.

As every problem has some remedies, improvement of educational system can root out terrorism from Pakistan. Currently, millions of children are out of school. This is a grave situation. Illiterate ones are easy to be brainwashed for terrorism. Government can allocate 4% of GDP for education. Syllabus in educational system is outdated. Hate material against terrorism can be included in the syllabus to cut its roots at the earliest. Teachers also must play a positive role here. They can inculcate the virtues of tolerance and patience in children. These steps can eradicate terrorism from Pakistan.

Secondly, there are thousands of religious seminaries in Pakistan. These are breeding grounds for terrorism. Some of the seminaries get foreign aid and start anti-state activities. Seminaries should be registered to keep check on their activities. It is also necessary to curb publication of hate materials. No madrassah should receive foreign aid without government’s approval. These steps are inevitable to get rid of terrorism.

Thirdly, pragmatic, and farsighted policies of government can extirpate terrorism from Pakistan. Pakistan is bleeding due to ill-advised policies of some previous rulers. They sacrificed the interests of the state for their benefits. They used insurgents as a second line of defense. Such a policy is not in favor of Pakistan anymore. Government can promote liberalism and tolerance to limit terrorist activities. Policies can be formulated keeping in view the interests of the state and changing trends in the modern world.

Fourthly, great powers have pivotal role to play in making this world worth living. Some powerful countries meddle into affairs of Third World countries. They try to capture and grab their resources. Such acts disturb the peace of the world. Great powers can help weak countries in their progress and development. They ought to help them in time of crisis. They can stand beside them while tackling complex issues. There is a dire need to curb the practice of supporting rebel forces in different countries. Such a positive attitude of great powers can nip this evil in the bud.

Fifthly, sincere, and wise approach of religious scholars can eliminate terrorism from Pakistan. Scholars have many followers in society. They can expose the mullahs who make people aggressive and intolerant. Scholars can throw light on the real spirit of Islam. Manipulation of verses related to jihad is to be stopped. The scholars can teach people that everyone has a right to practice his belief. People can be told about the real teachings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) regarding human rights. Everyone should accept that Islam is a religion of peace not violence.

Finally, IDPs have never been treated well in the history of Pakistan. They sacrifice everything for their homeland. They compromise on their present to save the future of upcoming generations. Someone rightly said, “Take care of the present and the future will take care of itself.” Unfortunately, government leaves IDPs in lurch. This situation needs immediate attention. IDPs should be provided with food, shelter, and education, so that •they may not involve in terrorist activities.

By and large, it can be said that terrorism is a burning question of the day. It has resulted in the abuse of human rights at a large scale. Terrorism has snatched the peace of heart and soul of people. It has added to difficulties of people enormously. It has injured people’s feelings. Many people have left the country for good. Terrorism has portrayed Pakistan as a violent hit country. Government, civil society, and security forces can eradicate this evil from Pakistan. The whole nation should stand against this menace as it is posing threat to our survival. Pakistan can make progress by leaps and bounds if it successfully addresses this issue. It is the responsibility of every Pakistani national to fight against the forces of terror and tyranny. People will have to sacrifice to save upcoming generations from terrorism. Operations like Zarb-e-Azab are a real remedy to this issue. Once terrorist is sent to hell, complete rehabilitation of affected areas should take place. So that people may live a life full of happiness and satisfaction.




  • Social media has an important role in the modern world. It has some merits and demerits as well


  • Social media is a source of knowledge and information/
  • It spreads political awareness among masses
  • It gives rise to global culture
  • Social media reduces distances among people
  • Social media entertains people to get rid of boredom of daily life
  • It is a platform where one can promote one’s ideology


  • Excessive use of social websites results in wastage of precious time
  • Social media has widened the gap between parents and children
  • Some evil-minded ones spread rumors and propaganda on social media
  • People lose their privacy when their accounts are hacked
  • Social media has taken man away from nature
  • It has rooted out love for reading


  • One can avoid getting addicted to social websites as excess of anything is bad
  • One may switch on to social websites to derive maximum benefits and entertainment
  • Some steps to curb cybercrimes are inevitable
  • Social websites should not be used at the cost of leisure making
  • The owners of certain social websites need to adopt stringent measures to stop spread of rumors on social media



 Twenty-first century is the age of technology. Modern inventions have revolutionized the world. Nowadays, people are living a facilitated life. Social media is playing an important role in the modem world. Social media has made the world a global village. Social media websites like Facebook and WhatsApp have become part and parcel of people’s life. These websites keep people updated about day-to-day happenings in the world. There is no denying the fact that social media has brought people closer. In past, people used to send letters to their near and dear ones. Those letters took months to reach the desired destination. People had no idea about the condition of their loved ones living abroad. Life was slow, dull, and boring. But presently, people can even make video calls to interact with their relatives and friends in the blinking of an eye. It is a great blessing that people can communicate with others in no time. It is a reality that social media has a few advantages and few disadvantages. It solely depends upon people how they use it. Positive-minded people use social websites for constructive purposes. While evil minded ones may use it for their nefarious designs. Shakespeare rightly said, “There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.” In the end, it can be said that social media has an instrumental role to play in connecting the world.

Social media has a lot of merits. The first and foremost one is that it is a source of knowledge and information. Different people share their knowledge about different aspects of the world on social websites. This knowledge is valuable for those who do not have a habit of reading. Similarly, social websites offer information about current issues in the world. Important news spreads like wildfire and every person comes to know about it. Many writers and great scholars share their views on Facebook. These views enhance people’s knowledge and make them rational.

Moreover, social media brings political awareness among people throughout the world. People are free to share their views about political issues confronting the world. Through social media, people in different countries launch political campaigns against dictatorial forces. They unite on the platform of social media to get rid of aristocratic forces. It is social media through which people come to know about atrocities committed in Syria, Palestine, and Iraq. Social media also had significant role in Arab Spring. It created political awareness among Arabs to fight for their rights.

Similarly, social media gives rise to global culture. People of various Countries come to know about one another’s cultural and traditional norms. It is due to social media that a person sitting in Africa meets American culture. People of Asia also observe western culture. People of different continents adopt positive aspects of different cultures prevalent in the world. As a result, a global culture is evolved.

Furthermore, social media reduces distances among people. Presently, a person sitting in one corner of the world can contact a person living in another comer of the world. Previously, it was difficult for a French to contact a Chinese within few minutes. It was only possible in dreams. But social media has materialized man’s dream to contact any person at any time in the world into reality. Social media has rooted out societal barriers in the world. Girls and boys get marry on social websites which was not possible earlier. Hence, it can be said that social media has overcome distances among the people.

Besides it, social media is a wonderful source of entertainment. People have different taste in this ever-changing world. Some people like to watch movies and others listen to songs on social websites like YouTube and learn rhymes. Science has proved the fact that entertainment is necessary in busy life of modern era. This century is the age of materialism. People must do a lot of work to fill their bellies. Daily routine work creates monotony in their lives. As a result, people want change and social media offers them variety of entertainment. Someone rightly said, “Variety is the spice of life.”

Finally, one can easily propagate one’s ideology on social media. Presently, hundreds of thousands of people are using social websites like Facebook.  People share their ideology and views on Facebook. When their fellow beings read these views, they critically analyze them. They point out positive and negative points in one’s ideology. Some people also become their followers. Thus, social media helps one spread one’s ideology.

It is a fact that there are two sides of a coin. Similarly, social media has a few demerits besides its merits. One Of demerits of social media is that its excessive usage results in wastage of time. Some people develop addiction to social media. They do not pay heed to the people in their surroundings and always remain busy on social websites. This excessive use of social media may become alarming for them. People leave them alone because of their attitude of indifference. So, excessive use of social media may create frustration in them. Someone said, “Excess of everything is bad.”

In addition to this, social media widens the gap between parents and their children. Some parents use social media unnecessarily. They do not give proper time to their children. Consequently, children start going away from their parents which is a bad omen for a family. Such children may develop feelings of inferiority. They search love outside of their home when their parents prefer social media websites and gadgetry over them.

In the same way, certain people spread rumors and propaganda on social media to get their vested interests. Such people disseminate information for their loaves and fishes. Unfortunately, there is no mechanism to stop such people from spreading hate speech on social media. This demerit may turn social media from a boon into bane.

Apart from it, people using social media may lose their privacy. There are hackers who hack certain profiles to blackmail people. Sometimes, they get access to people’s private data. This gives rise to cybercrimes which is a burning question of the day. Even some countries steal data and information related to people of other countries. So, such acts affect people’s privacy badly.

To add to it, social media keeps people away from nature. In past, people used to love recreational activities. They were closer to nature. People visited parks and beaches to entertain themselves. Nowadays, people hardly find time to admire beauty of nature. William H Davies in his poem ‘Leisure’ has described modem man’s indifference to natural beauty in these words, “What is this life if, full of care, we have no time to stand and stare. No time to turn at Beauty’s glance, and watch her feet, how they can dance. No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich the smile her eyes began. A poor life this if, full of care, we have no time to stand and stare. So, social media has deprived man of his love for natural beauty.

Lastly, social media has rooted out love for reading. Before the emergence of social websites, people used to read books in their free time. Books added to their knowledge and skill. Book reading made people critical. Reading refined their ideas and improved their vocabulary. In present time, most of the people prefer Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp to reading. Use of social media benefits people but not more than reading. Use of mobile phone and social media has eroded thirst of reading among people.

However, there are some suggestions through which one can derive maximum benefits out of social media. Firstly, one should avoid getting addicted to social websites. It does not mean that a person should do away with social media. But there is a need to maintain a balance in life. One can switch onto social media for a particular time. One may also spend time with one’s members of family. It is one’s moral duty to make best use of social websites. One can avoid negative attitude towards social media to remain happy in life.

Secondly, one is expected to consider social media a source of entertainment. One can interact with one’s loved ones on social media. It is not desirable to always sit on social websites without interacting with one’s fellow beings around one. Parents and teachers can play their pan in making youngsters aware of pros and cons of social media. In this way, negative usage of Facebook, YouTube. WhatsApp, etc. can be avoided.

Thirdly, government of different countries can take steps to curb cybercrime. Th owners of social media houses should come ahead with pragmatic policies to save people from hackers. Strict security checks can be introduced to ensure safety. People should also act like responsible citizens. They can apply difficult passwords to get rid of hackers It is also preferable for people to change passwords frequently. Such steps can help curtail cybercrime.

Fourth, man is a social animal, and he cannot live away from society and nature. Some people spend too much time on Facebook. They do not go for leisure making. As a result, they fall a prey to depression, frustration, and isolation. Such people can have close relationship with nature to enjoy their lives. They can use social media but not at the cost of interaction with the people around them.

Lastly, a mechanism can be introduced to stop people from spreading rumors and propaganda. Some people promote hate speech on social media which has deadly results. They t-y to brainwash youth to use it for their ill interests. There is a dire need to limit propagation of hate speech to favor peace and harmony in the world. No doubt, peace is the most desired commodity in the world.

To cut the long story short, social media has brought many positive changes in the world. It has made people to people contact easier. It is a source of pleasure and amusement for people. People make friends with others on social media. They share their point of view with others. They come to know about current events happening in the world through social media. In this way, social media has connected the people of different regions in the world. Contrary to this, social media has some demerits which  need to be addressed. So that people may not face any hazard while interacting with their peers on social media.




  • It is universally acknowledged fact that woman is not a frail creature

Supporting Arguments

  • Woman is as strong as men are
  • Woman played an instrumental role in Pakistan movement
  • Many a woman proved her mettle in the field of literature
  • Benazir was a strong daughter of nation who became Prime Minister of Pakistan
  • A knowledgeable person always respects women
  • Woman scientists revolutionized the field of science
  • Woman also won many accolades in the field of science
  • Many women even conquered the highest peak in the world
  • Women are also serving in armed forces of different countries
  • Only feudalists and conservative minded do not hold woman in high esteem
  • It would not be wrong to say that both man and woman are equal



It is universally acknowledged fact that woman is not a frail creature. She is as strong as men are. She can do wonders in different walks of life if she is provided with opportunities to excel. People having medieval thinking believe that woman is inferior to man. They treat her as sub-human. Such people give rise to gender inequality in society. While a rational and logical one knows that woman has a great contribution in the progress of the world. In fact, no nation can touch the height of success without active participation of woman in day-to-day affairs of life. Great nations ensure equal rights to both man and woman. Their leaders know woman can stand side by side with man to make their county strong and great. In the Third World, woman is a mere puppet in the hands of man. She is unable to use her talent for the progress and prosperity of her  county. That is why, Third World is lagging in different walks of life. In 21st century, women have proved their might in different fields of life. Many a woman is working as engineers, doctors, scientists and even head of the state. Angela Merkel, the German chancellor, is one of the strongest women in the world. Currently, she is ruling thousands of men. Now, it would be impractical to say that men working under her are weak. In the same way, no one can generalize that woman is a feeble entity. The statement ‘frailty thy name is woman’ is devoid of logic. Once, Napoleon Bonaparte remarked about the importance of woman, “Give me educated mother, I will give you educated nation.”

Moreover, if one peeps into history, one realizes that woman is not weak. There were many women who worked for the betterment and welfare of their nation. Women did not leave men alone in testing times. They even fought wars and defeated their enemies. Certain women also proved their administrative skills in past. Rani of Jhansi was a strong-minded woman. She defeated her enemies on many occasions. She sacrificed her life while defending her motherland. So, it will be unjust to say that woman is fickle minded.

Furthermore, creation of Pakistan is the result of untiring and consistent efforts of the Muslims of subcontinent. Many Muslim leaders sacrificed a lot to get freedom. They give their time, wealth, and peace of mind to get freedom. Pakistan movement was successful due to sincere efforts of Muslims. Role of women in Pakistan movement cannot be ignored as well. Muslims got independence due to struggle and determination of women. Women stood beside men to get rid of British rule. As a result, Pakistan came into being.

Similarly, there were many women who became great writers in the world. Women create masterpieces of literature owing to their strong sense of observation. Some women writers were realist in their approach towards life. They came across serious flaws in their society. They wrote different books in which they criticized follies and absurdities of their people. In this way, they acted as reformers of their society. Virginia Woolf, JK Rowling, Humira Ahmad and Banu Quassia are names to be mentioned in this regard. These women writers proved that woman is a strong creature on the earth.

Benazir Bhutto was a strong daughter of nation. She was a symbol of democracy. She stood against aristocratic forces of society. Benazir challenged the rule of dictator who was a usurper. She struggled hard and became the first woman prime minister of Pakistan. She always believed in democracy as a best revenge. Benazir was the pioneer of first woman bank in the history of Pakistan. It would not be wrong to say that she was the voice of voiceless. In the end, she lost her life for a strong democracy in the land of the pure.

Likewise, there is no doubt that a knowledgeable person gives due respect to woman. He is of the view that all human beings are equal. Knowledge makes him rational. He thinks that man and woman are two important pillars of society. While an illiterate one regards woman as a playful thing. He is not ready to give woman equal status in society. He develops a biased opinion against woman and propagates that woman is always dependent on man. She cannot do anything on her own. Famous quote of Muhammad Ali Jinnah is enough for illiterate ones to change their attitudes towards woman. The Quaid said, “No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you.”

Meanwhile, science and technology have revolutionized the whole world. Science has brought man from darkness to light. Science has made man pragmatic and wise. All scientific inventions and development were not only the result of man’s struggle. Woman also played an instrumental role in different fields of science. Woman scientists put their body and soul on the line to facilitate life on the earth. Women like Marie Curie shall always be remembered in the world. She won Nobel peace prize for her work on radioactivity. Such audacious women prove that they are stronger than men.

Apart from it, people generally believe that sports are man’s domain. Women of this modem age have buried this concept in the depth of Mariana Trench (Pacific Ocean). Nowadays, women have become sports ambassadors in different regions of the world. Women can play different games. Different women have won accolades in various sports competitions. Cricket was earlier considered a man’s sport. Currently, more than eight countries have their women cricket team. Serena Williams and Maria Sharapova are

world renowned tennis stars. They are k10wn as courageous women all over the world where thousands of men have no identity.

In addition to it, mountaineering is considered man’s profession. Sir Edmund Hillary was the first person to conquer Mount Everest. It does not mean that women are behind men in this field. A few great women were even able to master this tough profession. They ascended different peaks in the world. Jinko Taibbi, a Japanese woman, reached the summit of Mount Everest. Despite being a woman, she was able to do this miracle second time when she was in her seventies. Recently, Samina Bag, a Pakistani mountaineer, hoisted Pakistani flag at the highest peak of the world. Hence, it becomes clear that woman is not frail.

In this modem age, women are serving in armed forces of different countries. Previously, it was accepted that woman was too delicate to fight wars. Only few women participated in different battles. Nowadays, ladies are expert in warfare. They know how to operate lethal weapons. Some women are pilots. They are always there to defend their country against foreign aggression through their flying skills. Women are part and parcel of army even in the Third World countries. This situation leads to inference that woman is an adventurous as well as a daring entity.

It is pathetic that women are declared weak in feudal societies. Feudalists do not respect women. They want to keep them in the chains of slavery. They firmly believe that women are not to be educated. They do not allow authorities to establish girl schools in their locality. Such feudalists are mentally sick. They do not know the reality of the world. They are living in complete in some of the cases, girls have broken the chains of slavery. They have defeated feudal mind-set by achieving their goals while living in feudal societies.

Lastly, broadly speaking, both man and woman are equal. It depends upon what kind of opportunities one is provided with. A man remains backward in underdeveloped societies. On the other hand, a woman may succeed in life if she is provided a positive environment to exploit her talent. So, one cannot regard one superior to other. Hence, man and woman are equal, success of each one of them relies on the type of brought which they get.

To sum up. it can be confidently said that woman is not weak. She can perform different tasks at the same time. If she is imparted quality education, she can work for the development of her country. Someone has rightly said that woman is a nation builder Woman can bring positive change in the world. She has power to break the chains 0 slavery and barbarism. This quote makes it crystal clear that woman is not a far creature. “The hand that rocks the cradle is the hand that rules the world.”




  • Gender equality is a myth because women are not equal to men in Pakistan


  • Poor implementation of laws regarding women protection
  • Less say of women in decision-making
  • Conservative mindset
  • Illiteracy and feudalism
  • Cruel custom and traditions
  • Misinterpretation of religion
  • Economic dependence of women on men


  • Domestic violence
  • Weak economy of country.
  • Forced marriages
  • Overpopulation             
  • Rise in crimes against women including acid throwing
  • Poor image of country due to frequent cases of honor killing
  • Psychological problems in women owing to harsh attitude of men                                                                          


  • More educational institutions for women equal share in inheritance
  • Adequate representation of women in National and provincial assemblies Freedom to decide their future
  • Strict implementation of laws against acid throwing, honor killing and harassment at workplace
  • Exemplary punishment in cases of rape and forced marriages
  • Role of media in moral and social uplift of women
  • Effective steps in favor of third gender
  • Impartial role of judiciary



Gender equality is a myth because women are not equal to men in Pakistan. In most of the cases, women do not get what they deserve in Pakistani society. They face many problems in routine life. Unfortunately, men have failed to change their, attitude towards women. In fact, ill treatment of women is a global issue. Women hardly get equal wages to that of men in different parts of the world. Plight of women is highly deplorable in some areas of Pakistan. Women are not allowed to pursue the career of their choice. They  face various challenges when they come out of the house. Even some conservative ones do not permit them to get education which is appalling. On some occasions, they are tortured and killed in the name of honor. This situation needs immediate attention of people sitting at the helm of affairs. In every society, women have a role to play as a nation builder. No society can become perfect where women are deprived of their rights. If women issues are addressed, Pakistan can become a developed country. Strong role of women in society can only ensure bright future of Pakistan. Previous governments tried their level best to upgrade the status of women in Pakistan, but they failed to do so. Present government needs to take practical steps to promote gender equality in society. Increase in cases of violence against women is to be controlled at any cost. If government fails to safeguard women rights in society, Pakistanis will not be able to improve their bad image at international level.

There are many causes which have made gender equality a myth. Poor implementation of laws is the first and foremost cause of gender inequality in society. It is ironical that laws are enacted with great enthusiasm and excitement. When it comes to execution of these laws, the efforts of authorities end in fiasco. Many people violate laws regarding women rights, but they are not punished as per law. Sometimes, it seems that law of jungle is prevalent in Pakistan. Such sorry situation encourages crimes against women.

Moreover, women have less said in decision-making of the country which makes them vulnerable to male chauvinism. In Pakistan, there are only sixty reserved seats for women in National Assembly. These reserved seats are normally filled by women belonging to industrial and feudal class. There are few women who are directly elected on general seats. These women too belong to influential families. Most of the women parliamentarians do not take interest in fight for the cause of women. There are few women who raise the slogan of women empowerment, but it goes unheard in mal dominated parliament.

Furthermore, illiteracy and feudalism fan the fire of gender inequality in the country. Illiteracy is one of the major problems the country is faced with current1y. Ah illiterate hardly understands true value of woman in his life, so illiterate ones have backward thought. They are not inclined to treat women equally. Similarly, feudalists are not willing to ensure girls education in their areas. Their approach towards women is autocratic and dictatorial. They not only suppress their own women but also Persuade their peasants to restrict their women’s mobility in society.

In addition to it, conservative mind-set is also responsible for certain prejudices against women in society. Some people have stereotype thinking. They consider Women inferior to men. They believe that women are only there to serve them. People having such a point of view can never bear rise of women in their areas. They use every method to humiliate and discourage women to suppress her talent. So, conservative mind-set has made women frail in Pakistan.

Besides it, some people in our society have a blind faith in archaic custom and traditions. In past, ignorant people treated women as a slave. They regarded her as a tool to quench their sexual desires. They declared that women had no right to stand before men whatever the circumstances were. Women had also faced cruel tradition of ‘Sati’ Arabs also used to bury their daughters before the advent of Islam. Adherents of such ideology still exist in society who are not ready to give women her due place.

Apart from it, there are many religious bigots who misinterpret religious principles for underestimating the role of women in society. These religious extremists claim to be sole saviors of religion. They brainwash common men to become violent towards women. Such fickle-minded ones are unaware that Islam is a religion which restored lost glory of women in the world. Pseudo scholars wish to limit women’s participation in various professions of life. While Islam stress’s active role of both man and woman in every walk of life. Thus, religious bigots are worst enemies of women in Pakistan.

Lastly, there is economic dependence of women on men which compels them to compromise on their respect. Normally, man is the breadwinner of a family. woman is supposed to act like a housewife. This opinion does not let women become of economic dependence on men. She must wait for the consent of her male counterpart even to get necessities of life. This is a pathetic situation which does not support women to become self-reliant in Pakistan.

As every problem has a few effects, domestic violence is an offshoot of gender inequality. Women confront many challenges inside their houses. Incompetent one’s ware involved in domestic violence against women are not brought to book. In result, they physically threaten women on trivial issues. They fight with women which badly affects their children’s psyche. They forget after beating their women in cowardly manner, but their acts of violence leave shocking scars on the faces of women which are often seen in society.

Secondly, women are not able to participate in commercial activities actively. They are more than 520 of total population of the country. Their share in development is minimal. It is highly alarming for a country like Pakistan that half of population is sitting idle at home. Pakistani economy is a fragile economy as its human resource is a liability due to passive role of women in economic uplift of the country.

Thirdly, in this male-dominated society, women cannot choose their life partner as per their will. They are forced to marry the man of their parents’ choice. This practice is not acceptable because it is violation of human rights. Sometimes, young girls are compelled to tie the knot with aged persons. A few parents in backward areas also get their daughters married with Quran to save their piece of land. These acts of parents ruin the lives of their daughters forever.

Fourthly, woman is not consulted about the size of the family. Despite being a major stakeholder, she is kept in dark about how many children are enough for the family. She is ordered to give birth to as many children as she can as if she were a child producing machine. The birth of male child is welcomed with open heart and mind. People celebrate this occasion and distribute sweets among their near and dear ones. On the other hand, the birth of female child is regretted. People wish to have more than boy and to fulfil this desire, they keep on adding to their progeny This results in overpopulation which is ominous to survival of man on the earth.

Fifthly, the cases of acid throwing and honor killing have become norm of the day in the country. Usually, criminals are set free due to faults in criminal justice system. When they are acquitted of the charge without any hurdle, they feel encouraged to destroy the lives of more women. It is quite surprising that only women become the victims of honor killing. One hardly finds a case where any man was killed in the name of family’s respect. Besides, honor killing badly tarnishes the image of country among other nations. International community starts thinking that Pakistan is a place where women are brutally murdered to save the honor of their parents.

Finally, women suffer from psychological issues because of gender inequality. Scientists are of the view that proper care of women should be taken to have promising generation. In the third world countries like Pakistan, women do not feel comfortable even at their home. They meet man’s harsh attitude.

As a repercussion, they develop the feelings of inferiority complex. Such women cannot behave as nation builders. A disturbed lady cannot bring up her children as per the requirements of modem era. Hence, psychological issues in women can put the future of upcoming generation at stake.

There are many suggestions to turn gender equality from a myth into reality. Firs of all, there is a need to build more educational institutions for women. It is rightly said that education is a real panacea to all socio-economic hurdles of the country. The role of parents is of paramount importance in this regard. The world is changing rapidly and educated women are required to boost up economy of the country. Parents should not pay heed to outdated beliefs and send their girls to school to save their future.

women can also be given their due share in inheritance. Some people discriminate between their daughters and sons when they distribute their property among them. This is sheer injustice which must be avoided for promoting women empowerment. Freedom to decide their life partner is also a need of hour. A girl must spend her whole life with her husband. That is why, it ought to be her choice whether she wants to marry a particular person or not.

In the same fashion, adequate representation of women in National and provincial assemblies can help her get rid of male dominance. The more women are in assemblies: the more voice they can raise for their rights. Only a woman can better understand the issues affecting other women’s life. In developed countries, women have secured 90% of their rights. Women in Pakistan can influence policy making when their representation is equal to that of men in National Assembly. Through this way, women can change their fate.

In the same manner, strict execution of Jaws can curb acid throwing, honor killing and harassment at workplace against woman. Nowadays, such incidents are common in society. These incidents have portrayed bad image of country at international level. Criminals are encouraged to commit these heinous acts because they do not face jail terms. Rule of law must be ensured to nip this evil in the bud. In every civilized society, laws are of foremost importance. People will not abide by law until these are implemented in true letter and spirit. Similarly, exemplary punishment can be awarded to those who are involved in forced marriages and rape cases.

Adding more to it, media can save women from the clutches of feudalists and narrow- minded ones. Presently, media only highlights women issues without suggesting pragmatic solution. Everyone has witnessed the climax of media in Pakistan. It has a power to shape public opinion. On one hand, media can force government to work for the betterment of women in society. On the other hand, it can bring awareness among masses that nation needs assistance of women to meet the challenges modern world.

Likewise, religious scholars can give counter narrative to curtail the ideology of religious bigots. They can come forward to guide misguided ones about real status of women in Islam. Civil society can also play an instrumental role in addressing concerns of women in society. They can launch campaigns to eradicate menace of gender inequality. Intellectuals and the literati can write on difference between man and woman to bridge the gap among genders.

Finally, third gender has no status in Pakistan. People do not accept them in their gatherings. They are made fun of on roads. Even their parents desert them, they are left to fly in the air like a lifeless piece of paper. They need attention of the government to live a respectable life. They are the citizens of Pakistan, and it is wrong to neglect them.

In a nutshell, it can be said that it has reached an alarming stage. Pakistan cannot become great and strong if gender equality prevails here. Many developed countries progressed because their women were beside men in every piece of work. Pakistani women have potential to take country to the height of success if they are provided with opportunities to excel. All in all, it can be opined that gender inequality is against moral and ethical values. Proper policymaking to maintain gender equality is inevitable. Otherwise, the count cannot compete in this world of strife and struggle.




  • There is no doubt that right to dissent is one’s fundamental right in society. This right cannot be exercised to limit one’s freedom of speech.

Supporting Arguments

  • History is evident of the fact that freedom of speech promotes reason and rationality in the world
  • All scientists believed in difference of opinion but in a polite way.
  • Constructive criticism adds beauty and perfection to literature
  • A knowledgeable person critically analysis other’s point of view without imposing any restriction on their freedom of expression
  • Currently, there is no progress where right to free speech is in the of disagreement
  • Obsolete custom and traditions never allow right to dissent to flourish in a society              
  • The Holy Prophet (PBUH) declared difference of opinion a source of pleasure and knowledge
  • It is rightly said that variety is the spice of life
  • Media has an important role to play in propagating freedom of thought md expression
  • Galileo Galilee was persecuted for promoting freedom of speech because of conservative mindset
  • Every religion of the world supports individual liberty
  • However, it is not desirable to use this right to hurt one’s religious sentiments



There is no doubt that right to dissent is one’s fundamental right. But this right cannot be exercised to limit one’s freedom of speech. No one in this world can claim that he is infallible. There is always room for improvement. Criticism on one’s ideas and opinion are necessary to analyze one critically. Someone has rightly said that positive criticism purifies an opinion or piece of writing of impurities. At the same time, it is not rational to stop one from expressing what one thinks. A person is fully empowered to discuss what he believes without hurting anyone’s feeling. Article 19 of the constitution of Pakistan ensures one’s freedom of speech and expression in a reasonable manner. So, one can exercise this right whenever one wants to do so without crossing the limits of sanity. It is a fact that world has become a global village. Freedom of thought and expression are inevitable for peaceful coexistence of people of different caste, creed, and religion. Freedom of expression is necessary to give impetus to innovation and new ideas in society. Freedom of speech makes it possible to utilize manifold capabilities of man in the world. Creativity loses its ground when freedom of speech is discouraged. However, freedom of expression and thought does not mean to defame one’s religion and respect. One should not cross one’s limit while giving vent to one’s feelings. In the end, it can be said that progress and prosperity of the world is linked with free speech. United Nations and its member countries can play an instrumental role in protecting man’s right to free speech. Disagreement is always welcomed if it does not suppress one’s right to express one’s point of view.

Moreover, history is evident of the fact that freedom of speech promotes reason and rationality in the world. In a civilized society, people do not jump to the conclusion immediately. They analyze everyone’s statement logically. People do not stop a person from uttering the words of his choice. Rather, they try to decide impartially up to what extent his thinking stands to logic. After that, they decide whether to accept or reject his point of discussion. All this is done in a polite and formal way without restricting his freedom of thought and expression. Such an attitude favors reason in society.

Furthermore, all the scientists believe in difference of opinion in a polite way. Usually, a scientist must work hard to formulate a hypothesis. This hypothesis is tested again and again to be transformed into a theory. Then, the theory is checked and investigated through various parameters before allowing it to make a law. The hypothesis of every scientist does not become a law. Some views are welcomed while others are not considered true by scientific experts. All this process is caried out keeping in mind a scientist’s right to free speech. Technical experts may disagree with what he says but they defend his right to say at cost.
Similarly, constructive criticism adds beauty and perfection to literature. It is observed that there are thousands of writers in world. These writers are free to express their feelings. There are some critics as well in different fields of literature. These critics may disagree with the opinion of a particular writer. It is a globalized world m which thinking, and choices vary from person to person. A critic may not find a writer’s piece of writing as per the requirements of modem age. But he has no right to stop a writer from propagating his point of view. So, it is well said that difference of opinion is welcomed but not at the cost of freedom of speech and expression.

Likewise, a knowledgeable person critically analyses others point of view without imposing any restriction on their freedom of speech. A man of knowledge understands that there are always two sides of a coin. Despite snatching one’s right to free speech, he observes a person’s arguments through different angles. He may not adhere to what a person says but it is not his priority to stop a person from spreading his ideology. This attitude helps freedom of speech find strong roots in society. On the contrary, an illiterate has unidirectional approach towards life. He not only disagrees with a person but also tries to snub him while expressing his feelings. Such an attitude results in the death of free speech which is quite disturbing.

In addition to this. there is no progress where right to free speech is curtailed in the name of disagreement. Normally, difference of opinion is a positive sign for a society and people. Sometimes, a few people intend to stand against free speech by crossing their limits. Such a situation favors conservative and stereotype thinking. A society, where people cannot express their thinking openly becomes a backward society. Scholars and intellectuals are killed due to constipated atmosphere of society. This is highly objectionable. No one should be allowed to threaten freedom of speech in this ever-changing world.

In the same way, obsolete custom and traditions never allow right to dissent to flourish in society. There are many people who believe in cruel rituals. They are not ready to move even an inch from what their forefathers told them. In some cases, people know everything about an issue. They have all the knowledge to ascertain that what a Person is saying is true. Contrary to this, they turn a blind eye to the reality and save their  beliefs. They are ready to crush freedom of speech under their feet by not letting a person discuss what stands b-use to reason.

The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) declared difference of opinion a Source of pleasure and knowledge. He never allowed anyone to oppress his fellow beings. He was a man of courage and sagacity who listened to everyone patiently. The Prophet (peace be upon him) always advised his followers not to suppress women rights. Even, women had courage to express their thinking before the prophet (S.A.W). people of other religions were allowed to practice their religion. Hence, it stands to merit that disagreement is desirable for innovation, but this disagreement should not root out freedom of speech from society.

Besides, it is generally believed that variety is the spice of life. It adds color to life. Nothing is constant but change in this unpredictable world. Liking and disliking vary from person to person. Even two brothers do not have the same choice. so, change and difference of opinion are but natural. When two brothers do not have same opinion about an issue, free speech becomes unavoidable. It is fruitful for human beings to respect one another’s opinion. If they have different thinking there is no need to fight but be pragmatic to save freedom of thought and expression.

In the same fashion, media has an important role to play in propagating freedom of thought and expression. Media has power to become the voice of the voiceless. It is considered the fourth pillar of state. Media can help people express their grievances about the people sitting at the helm of affairs. As media is the proponent of free speech, it must show maturity while throwing light on day-to-day affairs of life. In developed countries, media houses do not face censorship because they are mature enough to understand their responsibilities while supporting freedom of press. In third world countries, the situation is reverse. Media owners are unable to deal with different situations because media face certain chains. Media houses can plan their working effectively to make sure that free speech does not face untoward limitations.

Apart from it, Galileo Galilee was persecuted for promoting freedom of speech because of conservative mind-set. Galileo believed in promoting new ideas. His contemporaries had not supported any new idea. Galileo was of the view that the earth is revolving around the sun. While the people of that era believed that earth is stationary, they blindly followed what their forefathers had told them. As a result, Galileo was tortured by inquisition. At the end of the day, it was free speech which overpowered blind truth. The truth which Galileo knew applies in a new way in modem world. NOW’ everyone knows that the earth is not stationary.

Finally, every religion of the world is a torchbearer of freedom of speech and expression. No religion allows its people to snatch this right from the followers of the other religions. There are certain conservative minded people in every religion who try to stop others from practicing their religion. Such illiterate ones do not allow others to support their point of view. Their thinking is autocratic. So, it is not religion but some religious bigots who do not let people express their thinking.

However, it is very important to mention here that some people misuse freedom of speech to hurt other’s religious sentiments. Such an attitude is against the dignity of man. Every person has an emotional attachment with his religious beliefs. When sacred personalities and beliefs are criticized or made fun of, people react which may destroy peace of the world. People living in western societies do have freedom of speech, but it does not mean that they should criticize sacred personalities of Muslims. It is totally unacceptable. Freedom of speech is everyone’s right but not to defame real heroes of the world.

To cut the long story short, disagreement of opinion is a welcoming sign for the survival of the world. Difference of opinion introduces new suggestions about a particular issue. These suggestions beautify the work which is already done on an issue. Right to dissent cannot be allowed to restrict one’s right to freedom of thought and expression. It is one’s undeniable right which one can avail without playing with others’ feelings. A society moves ahead where there is free electronic and print media. But a society where press does not enjoy freedom plunges into darkness. Hence, the statement ‘I disapprove of what you say but I defend your right to say till death’ stands true to merit.




  • Man’s life is full of ups and downs, but he should face them courageously

Supporting Arguments

  • Man should face the hardships of life courageously
  • It is better for man to learn from his mistakes
  • One should always learn from one’s failures
  • Man can be destroyed but he can never be defeated
  • Fortune always favors the brave
  • Consistent efforts can change unfavorable circumstances into favorable ones
  • All the great personalities succeeded in their life due to their untiring efforts Try, try again till you succeed
  • King Robert Bruce succeeded in defeating British forces due to his persistent efforts
  • When a man works sincerely, the whole universe conspires to help him
  • Man makes his own fate
  • Escapism leads to degeneration and disappointment
  • It is hope not hopelessness that brings revolution
  • Scientists invented modern weapons and machinery after continuous efforts
  • Pakistanis must bear huge losses due to terrorism, but they are still fighting  against it
  • Sri Lankans faced thirty years of civil war, but they continued their efforts to root out Tamil Tigers



Man’s life is full of ups and downs. Man must face unexpected Situations Sometimes, he succeeds in his aims. He may also fail to materialize his dreams into reality. Man should not stop his struggle towards his destination. Hard work is a key to success. Persistence should not be given up at any cost. There is no need to lose heart in every thick and thin. It is against the ability of man to lose hope in tough circumstances. Those who tackle challenging situation one earns name and fame. Some people are unable to complete their tasks. They lose their focus and accept their defeat easily. There is no place for such men in the golden annals of history. Those people are remembered forever who change their defeat into success. Life is not a bed of roses. Human mind must not falter in hopeless environment. So, man should never give up even if the whole world stands against him.

Man should face the hardships of life courageously. Man is a social animal. He lives in society. He must cross many barriers to fulfil his desires in life. Wise men never lose hope in difficulties. ‘They keep on striving for their goals. Cowardice takes man away from his dreams. William Shakespeare said, “Cowards die many times before their death but the valiant never taste of death but once.” Positive attitude can result in ultimate happiness.

Similarly, it is better for man to learn from his mistakes. Self-assessment is necessary in every field of life. Failures throw light on man’s weknesses Positive minded men realize their shortcomings and try to overcome them. This response is in their favor. On the other hand, a negative minded person does not accept his faults. He is not ready to improve his performance by getting rid of his errors. As a result, he gives up and becomes static.

Ernest Hemingway, a great American novelist said, “Man can be destroyed but be can never be defeated.” He narrates the story of a fisherman Santiago in his famous novel ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. Santiago wants to catch a big fish, but he fails in several attempts. Once, he succeeds in catching a fish. He is attacked by sharks and loses that fish. Santiago is a man of courage, but he never gives up easily. Continuous failures are not able to defeat him. He continues his struggle to reach his destination. Such audacity is required to win a respectable place in society.

There is no doubt that fortune always favor the brave. It is well said, “God helps those who help themselves.” Those people achieve who at least try. Many people are not ready to pursue their wishes. They put up half-hearted efforts. Such efforts do not produce results and face disappointment. So, everything is attainable if one has a will to get it.

Likewise, consistency is required to move ahead in life. This world has become a global village. There is competition in every profession. Consistent and tireless efforts are a prerequisite to reach the height of glory. Some people have yet ability to complete their work in time. They win many accolades in life. There are few who leave every task

incomplete. They seldom move forward and give up their hope. Life becomes a tragedy for them.

All the great personalities of the world believed in hard work and struggle. They did not give up even in the worst circumstances. They served humanity. They brought happiness in the lives of others through their indomitable will. Abraham Lincoln wanted to abolish slavery. He faced many hardships in that noble cause. He kept his hope alive. In the end, success his feet and he rooted out slavery.

Someone has rightly remarked, “Try, try again till you succeed.” Many people achieve what they want in life, but others must fry their level best to fulfil their desires. Life is simple for some and complex for others. Both success and failure are necessary part of life. It is not necessary to get fruitful results every time. Man should not be dejected in case of unfavorable consequences. He can try until he finds his way. This is a most suitable approach towards life.

Robert Bruce was the king of Scotland. He was defeated 14 times by the King of England He thought that he could not defeat English. Once, King Robert took refuge in a cave to save his life. He saw a spider which Wing was to reach its cobweb. The spider failed to reach its destination time and again. It continued its attempts and did not give up. Spider reached its cobweb in the ninth attempt. This incident inspired the king. He again stand his homework. Finally, Robert Bruce defeated British forces. So, it is rightly advised no’ to become hopeless in life.

           When a person works sincerely, the whole universe conspires to help him. History Of man has witnessed gradual improvement, Man used to live in caves in ancient times. He fought dangerous animals. He did not lose his hope. Man’s restless nature always inspired him to know about the things around him. He worked hard to Upgrade his standard of living. Man has made life easier for him with the passage of time.

There were many poor men who changed their fate. They faced hunger, Starvation, and poverty. Materialism also hindered their way to progress. Their relatives left them in the lurch. They were alone but never gave up in any situation. They worked day and night with hope and courage. Finally, such men succeeded in their life. They became example for others.

Truly speaking, escapism leads to degeneration and disappointment. FPSC holds CSS exam every year. Thousands of candidates appear in this competitive exam. Some of them succeed and others do not. Many candidates lose heart. There are some candidates who gather their courage and reappear in the exam. Such candidates improve their preparation and qualify the CSS exam. Everything is possible for those who wish.

In life, some people become hopeless without putting up strenuous efforts to get what they wish. They cannot become efficient managers and leaders. Such people are unable to bring a positive change in their lives. They become unidirectional. They lack multitasking skills. These people can be persuaded to face miseries of life with audacity and bravery. In this way, they can turn any situation in their favor.

Babur, the Mughal emperor faced many defeats, but he remained hopeful. He captured Samarkand and Bukhara twice. His enemies snatched these areas from him. As a result, he became a wanderer. His friends let him alone. He had only four thousand soldiers. He remained determined despite all the difficulties. Babur reorganized his army. He fought against Ibrahim Lodhi and defeated him in the first battle of Panipat. In this way, he laid the foundation of Mughal rule in India which lasted for more than three hundred years

Science has revolutionized human life on this planet. It has modernized people’s style of living. Scientists invented countless things. They overcame many fatal diseases by introducing new methods of treatment. All this progress was possible because Of their dedication in research. Scientists faced many problems in their research, but they did not give up. They continued research and observation which proved marve110US for humanity.

Pakistanis are a resilient nation. Currently, they are facing complex issues terrorism has badly affected their lives. They have lost their fellow beings. Energy crisis has added fuel to fire. They are facing excessive load shedding. People of Pakistan have not opened their struggle for progress. They are hopeful of their bright future. Suicide Attacks have blos.vn up their schools. They are still sending their children to schools. They know that it is hope not disappointment which brings revolution.

Adding to it, Sri Lankan forces fought against LITE for thirty years. There has been a CIVII war like situation for many years. Government had firm Intention to nip that evil in the bud. It equipped its army with modem weapons. Sri Lankan forces had to go through tough times, but they never ever gave up their smuggle. They learn techniques of Guerilla War. finally, they were able to extirpate their enemy from their homeland.

To conclude, it can be said that life always runs on its course Time and tide wait for none. Sometimes, situation is in favor of man. He enjoys lite according to his own taste. On the other hand, difficulties are also a part and parcel of life. One should not give up easily. It IS desirable to solve problems in life logically. Man can reform his life through perseverance and determination. In the end, it is advised to keep hopes alive and never ever give up




  • Judiciary has an important role to play in a society. Unfortunately, the performance of Judiciary in Pakistan has been below expectations.


  • Politicization of judiciary
  • Slow working in judicial system
  • Corruption
  • Fewer number of judges
  • Absence of exemplary punishments to culprits O Negative role of lawyers


  • Social and moral deprivation in people
  • Increase in crime rate
  • Rise of terrorism
  • Less respect for laws in society
  • Fall in foreign direct investment
  • Corrupt people are not punished


  • Speedy trial              
  • Necessary changes in outdated laws
  • Freedom of judiciary from political influence
  • Reforms in criminal justice system
  • Accountability of judges as per Article 209 of constitution
  • Revival of executive magistracy



Judiciary has important role to play in a society. No country can make progress without impartial judiciary. Where there is timely administration of justice, there is peace, harmony, and equality. Effective implementation of laws leads a country to the height of success. Someone has rightly said, “Justice delayed is justice denied.” There  is chaos and anarchy where judicial forces fail to deliver. As far as Pakistan is concrete the performance of judiciary has not been up to the mark. Unfortunately, judiciary remained a mere puppet in the hands of dictators, feudalists, and the elite of society. Judiciary followed the principle of ‘Might is right’ in the land of pure. It often played Brutus in the name of doctrine of necessity. It will not be wrong to say that military dictators violated the constitution time and again. Judges were always there to validate their illegal acts. No doubt, there were some great judges like Justice Cornelius who stood against dictatorial forces of time. Overall, judiciary has remained a weak institution  which badly failed to administer justice in the country. Judicial system of Pakistan is outdated and obsolete. There is red-tapism in judicial system. People must wait for years to get justice. Bad and aggressive attitude of lawyers adds insult to injury. Lawyers are not properly trained. They open fight with the government functionaries. They do not even spare judges when it comes to their vested interests. Similarly, criminal justice system has certain flaws. There is no witness protection system. There is no standard and criterion to ensure whose testimony is acceptable and who’s not. It is quite surprising that there is no concept of accountability of judges in Pakistan. Judges do not consider themselves accountable to anyone. In such a situation, it becomes a far cry to maintain rule of law in society.

As every problem has some causes; political interference is the major cause of weak judicial system in Pakistan. Politicians intrude into the functions of different institutions. Most of the government institutions are politicized. Politicians influence the decisions of judges. They use their political might to protect their vested interests. Those judges who are not ready to have gloves in hand with the politicians are transferred from their respective posts. Some of the judges are appointed on recommendations of politicians. They are always there to do what their political friends want them to do. In this way, the rich and powerful buy justice, while the poor and the weak keep on suffering at the hands of judges.

Moreover, slow working judicial system fails to dispense speedy justice in society. Pakistan’s judicial system is outdated. Normally, a person files a petition, and his son receives the decision of the court. Owing to this, justice has become expensive in the country. People must pay heavy fees of lawyers. Even then, their cases are decided after a long time. There are many countries in which every case has a particular time limit. But the situation is reverse in Pakistan. Lawyers and judges do not work sincerely, and people must wait for years to seek justice.

There is rampant corruption in judicial system. There are some issues regarding integrity of judges and their staff. Not all but some of the judges take bribes and decide the cases in favor of bribers. A few lawyers are in connivance with corrupt judges. They ask the judges to decide the cases as per their desire. Some of the judges think that they are not accountable to anyone. They sell justice for worldly pleasures. Besides, most of the laws are archaic. Laws are complex and are not easily comprehended. Even the decisions of the judges about similar cases vary. Certain amendments are required in the laws to make them as per the requirements of modem age. For example, Factories Act, 1934 was introduced by the British. Irony of the situation is that it is still enacted in Pakistan. The law was made in 20th century to meet the needs of that time. The world has undergone rapid changes in this century. So, such outdated laws fail to address public concern.

Furthermore, fewer number of judges hinder efficient working of judiciary. Judges are few but cases are more. A judge must hear more than hundred cases per day. He has no other way but to postpone the cases till next hearing. There are serious flaws in recruitment process of judges. Currently, High Court appoints them, while in past, they were appointed by Public Service Commission. So, there is no uniformity in their recruitment criterion. Recruitment of judges remains suspended for many years. But cases are registered on daily basis. As a result, this gap between number of judges and number of cases affects working of judiciary.

Likewise, there is scarcity of exemplary punishments. Criminals commit crimes and violate the rights of others. They know that they will be set free because of loopholes in judicial system. In some cases, judges are reluctant to award strict punishments. Judges know the security of their family members will be at stake if they take stem action against criminals. Many terrorists carry out terrorist attacks in different cities of Pakistan. They hardly get treatment which they deserve owing to absence of exemplary punishment.

Finally, negative role of lawyers maligns judicial forces of the state. Most of the lawyers lack ethics. They are not properly trained. They use negative means to win cases. They have their Bar Associations in all the courts of the country. These associations pressurize judges not to decide cases on merit. No doubt, lawyers played an instrumental role in throwing out dictatorship out of power corridors. But it does not mean that lawyers should become overconfident and harass judges sitting in the courts.

There are many effects of weak judicial system in Pakistan. Owing to slow working of judiciary, people feel socially and morally deprived. The rich are not held accountable. They are often set free even if they commit heinous crimes, while the poor get discriminatory treatment. They fail to get justice because it has become expensive. Consequently, people from low strata of society do not find respectable place in society. They start thinking that words like ethics and morality are only found in the dictionary of fools. This mistrust about judicial forces widens the gap between people and the state. They take arms into their hands to get revenge which is a wild justice.

Crime rate also increases in society because judiciary has failed to dispense justice, Criminals commit crimes because they think that no one is there to stop them. People register cases against the criminals. But they are not brought to book because of flaws in criminal justice system. No one gets ready to give evidence against forces of evil because of fear of losing life. This further aggravates the situation and criminals become brave to violate the rights of citizens. That’s why, crime rate goes up in society.

In the same way, severe faults in judicial system provide impetus to terrorist activities in the country. Terrorists kill innocent people on daily basis. Most of them are not arrested. Those who are arrested are exonerated without trial or any strict punishment. Unusually, they get bail and never appear in the court again. It is also observed that police and prosecutors fail to prove charges levelled against them. In the end, they keep on helping the forces of terror. It is common man who suffers at the hands of terrorists.

It is said, “Where judiciary becomes a puppet in the hands of few, there is no respect for laws.” People take pride in violating the laws of state. Same gloomy situation is prevalent in Pakistan. People are not afraid of being penalized. They consider themselves superior to law. They believe that law cannot take its own course in society. Such thinking may create chaos and anarchy in society. What to think of common man even lawmakers are lawbreakers in the county.

Apart from it, rule of law is necessary to ensure peace, equality, harmony, and tranquility in society. Foreigner investors invest in a peaceful country. As far as Pak society is concerned, the situation is volatile; law abettors are not punished. As a Lilt’ they spread fear and violence in society. Owing to violent atmosphere, foreiY1 invest0ß are reluctant to establish their business in Pakistan. Nowadays, foreigner direct investment is at its lowest in history of the country. This pathetic situation gives rise to unemployment and poverty in the country.

Finally, poor performance of judiciary encourages corrupt forces in the country. Currently, corruption is rampant in Pakistan. Certain civil servants, politicians and military socials embezzle public money. They spend government money on their personal affairs. They fill their pockets instead of spending money on public welfare. Some of them are caught red handed but their accountability remains a hard nut to crack. presently, money laundering is a burning issue. If one observes, one hardly finds cases when exemplary punishments are awarded to culprits involved in corruption and money laundering in the country.

As every problem has pragmatic solutions, speedy trial in different cases can strengthen judicial system of the country. There is dire need to introduce a particular time limit to decide any case. This will help in getting rid of unnecessary delay in provision of justice. Timely dispensation of justice will boost up people’s morale. They will trust judicial system of the country. Speedy justice will reduce crime in society. Prompt decisions in different cases are required to maintain rule of law in the country.

Secondly, there is no doubt that many laws in the country are outdated. Obsolete laws cannot address different issues of modem era. Research can be conducted to get rid of unnecessary provisions in laws. New sections can be inserted to bring law in conformity with changing trends of modem era. In this way, judiciary can come up to people’s expectation. It will also make judiciary effective and trustworthy in society. Its functioning will also be improved.

Thirdly, judiciary cannot work properly, until it is depoliticized. In Pakistan, politicians have developed a bad habit to influence public institutions. Politicized judiciary is a point in case. Politicians force judges to be partial while deciding different cases. It affects the performance of judiciary badly. So, the government has an important role to play in this regard. It is the duty of government to keep politicians away from judiciary. Only depoliticized judiciary can provide justice to all in the country. Someone has rightly said, “Impartial judiciary can strengthen judicial forces in the country.”

Fourthly, reforms in criminal justice system are inevitable. There is weak witness Protection system in the county. Many people are ready to get their evidence recorded. But they feel hesitant to appear in the court for evidence because of fear of criminals. It is quite rational that no one is ready to lose his life for the sake of provision of justice to others. It is high time government took practical steps to improve witness protection system. Moreover, security of judges should also be enhanced to make them confident and impartial.

Fifthly, Article 209 of the constitution of Pakistan emphasizes on accountability of judges. Unfortunately, it has not been implemented in letter and spirit since 1973. Everyone talks about accountability of civil servants. No one wishes check on judges. As a result, some of the judges think that they are not accountable. They believe that they are infallible. It is the responsibility of government to implement Article 209 of the constitution. So that corrupt judges should be punished, and honest ones can be rewarded on merit.

Lastly, revival of executive magistracy can reduce the burden of judges. In past, summary trials were conducted by magistrates. Last dictator abolished executive magistracy. In this way, he added to the woes of judiciary. Nowadays, judges must investigate trivial issues which affect their working. Executive magistracy can be reintroduced to facilitate day to day issues. Similarly, more judges can be appointed to overcome shortage of judges in the superior and session courts. In the end, it can be said that a country cannot move ahead where justice is expensive.

To sum up, role of judiciary has always been important all over the world. Those countries progressed where justice was provided to the people at doorstep. While a few countries are still struggling to get a respectable place in the comity of nations because there prevails the law of might is right. Unfortunately, Pakistan is one of those curries where justice is beyond access of common man. Here, the rich and the powerful get decision of cases in their favor. On the other hand, the poor must wait for decades to get justice. There are serious faults in our judicial system which needs to be corrected. Certain pragmatic steps are required to put the things in order in this regard. If one peeps into the history of subcontinent, judiciary played a controversial role. In Pakistan, judiciary sided with the dictators on many occasions. If Pakistanis want to become a nation, strong, imperial, and independent judiciary is inevitable.




  • Literature acts like a critic to portray a true picture of life

Supporting Arguments

  • Literature reforms human life
  • Literature is a great source of critical information
  • It adds to man’s knowledge
  • Literature makes man intellectually strong
  • Literature keeps morality alive in society
  • Literature criticizes superstitious human behavior
  • Literature made man a rational being
  • Literature entertains people
  • Literature is full of lessons
  • Literature inspires man to face difficulties of life courageously One is introduced with different cultures through literature
  • Literature corrects serious faults in man’s personality
  • Literature brings man closer to nature
  • Man, analyses merits and demerits of different ages through literature



Literature portrays a true picture of life. It is real expression of life. Literature throws light on every aspect of life. Literature criticizes life for making it pure. This criticism is usually based on logic. The aim of this criticism is correction. Literature brings out man’s faults before him. It advises man to lead a balanced life. Masterpieces of literature are written by writers. The writers have keen observation of life. Writers disclose those realities of life about which people do not bother. Similarly, literature ridicules human follies and absurdities on a positive note. Human beings come to know about their shortcomings and faults. They try to get rid of weaknesses of their character and personality. In this way, literature lays the foundation of a balanced society. Hence, it can be said that literature criticizes life to give it perfection.

Literature reforms human life. Literature tells man what life is and what it should be. Literature enlightens man to distinguish between what is right and what is wrong. It is literature which teaches man that appearances ‘are often deceptive. Relations based on physical charm are short-lived. Literature broadens the scope of man’s thinking. Then, man only likes internal beauty. He becomes practical in his approach towards life. As a result, many lives a refined and reformed life due to literature.

Moreover, literature is a great source of critical information. It is literature which teaches man the golden principles of life. Man is introduced with different philosophies of life. He reads different approaches towards life. This information about various ways of living helps him in his life. Literature also provides him information about different places and persons. He gets variety of ideas about life.

Literature adds to man’s knowledge. This knowledge is usually pure and perfect. It is already analyzed. When a reader studies Greek dramas, he gets knowledge about their lifestyle. He comes to know about their likes and dislikes. He observes how Greeks dominated the world. He also meets their weaknesses and strong points; Man reaches the secret of their success through literature. Such practical knowledge plays an instrumental role in man’s life.

Similarly, literature makes man intellectually strong. Man, studies many in  his life, He learns about the views of writers like Bertrand Russell and Francis Bacon. Both the writers are famous for their grip on issues of life. Bacon teaches him the ways of achieving worldly success. Bertrand Russell guides him about importance of rationality Reader learns from experiences of such great writers. He gets intellectual excellence through their teachings.

Literature sharpens man’s analytical skills. Initially, writer’s opinion becomes Reader’s point of view. The reader becomes more mature when his study of literature becomes vast. Reader Starts analyzing the views of different writers logically. Ile places writers according to their skill and knowledge. So, literature makes him a critic who can compare one writer with other.

 Besides, literature keeps morality alive in society. There is always stress on moral values in literature. The subject of literature is man and his life. Literature teaches man real ethics of life. There are many stories of different societies in English literature, morally strong societies made progress by leaps and bounds. People were united in such societies. Those societies which left moral values did not prosper. When man reads such stories in literature, he tries to follow real moral values in his life.

Literature criticizes superstitious human behavior; it makes man a realist in life. Literature adds to the rationality of man. Human beings considered fate responsible for their downfall in past: They used to think that man was a mere puppet in the hands of fate. Writers like Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare criticized that attitude. It was the period of renaissance. They made it clear that man himself was responsible for his failure or success. They declared that man could do anything in life.

Furthermore, literature entertains people. Writers apply literary devices of humor and irony to make fun of their characters. Humor and irony bring laughter on the face of  reader. This style of writing serves two purposes. Firstly, it corrects loopholes of certain characters. Secondly, it amuses and entertains the reader. Reader feels fresh and writer gets maximum attention.

Literature is full of lessons. People come to know about success and failure of different persons in society. When a reader studies ‘Hamlet’, he realizes the cause of  prince Hamlet’s downfall. Tragic flaw in Hamlet’s character teaches reader to avoid it in his real life. When one reads Shakespeare’s ‘The Merchant of Venice’, one decides that humbleness not pride leads to success. So, literature guides man by portraying a true picture of life before him,

In addition, literature inspires man to face the harsh realities of life courageously. One is introduced with John Milton’s Satan when one reads ‘Paradise Lost, one notices Satan’s downfall from heaven to hell. Satan’s brave speeches make a reader courageous in life. Satan says, “What thou the field be lost, all is not lost; the unconquerable will and courage never to submit and yield.” He further says, “It is better to reign in hell than to serve in heaven.” Such words of a fallen hero encourage a person to fight difficulties of life audaciously.

Man observes different cultures of various countries of the world with the help of literature. A person sitting in America can get know-how about Arabic culture through Arabic literature. He can get knowledge about beauty and color of diverse Arabic culture. Similarly, a Pakistani becomes aware of English culture by studying English literature. He comes to know about evolution of English culture and style of living. He is told about royal family’s attachment with their norms and values.

On the same pattern, literature corrects serious faults in man’s personality. George  Bernard Shaw was a great English writer. He dominated English literature for fifty years.

He was of the view that pronunciation of Englishmen was faulty. He wrote a play ‘Pygmalion ‘ on this issue. In this play, he severely criticized faulty accent of English well He asked them to improve their way of talking indirectly. So, literature brings such short comings before people for the sake of improvement.

Literature abridges the gap between man and nature. Literature throws light on life of hurry and worry in 21 st century. It discusses that man has become a machine. He always runs behind the money. He wants to become rich overnight. He has no time for Leisure molding. He has left his relatives for his greedy behavior. Finally, he has money but no happiness. When people read such literature, they realize their mistakes and get closer to nature.

In the same way, literature also throws light on hollowness of modem civilization. It discloses that modem man is materialistic. He is heading towards destruction. There is no care and respect among people for one another. Money has become the standard of determining a man’s (position) worth. There is less concern for knowledge. Family system is about to collapse. Modem man is disappointed and hopeless. Literature brings such faults to light for betterment of man.

Finally, man analyses merits and demerits of different ages with the guidance of literature. Literature informs us that Englishmen lived a directionless life before renaissance. Literature explains that pre-Socrates philosophers were idealistic.  They showed less rationality. Socrates rationalized philosophy. It is literature that admires the glorious past of the Muslims. It also explains the causes of downfall of Muslims in the world. One cannot develop one’s opinion about different ages in the absence of literature. Literature guides man to lead a flawless and well-informed life.

To conclude, it is imperative to say that literature is the best criticism of life. It aims to make life better. It shows both Sides of picture. Literature makes man a realist. Literature is the true complexion of life. It reflects what life is. Literature  brings all our weaknesses before us. Literature throws out all impurities of life. Literature teaches man real manners of life. Literature and man have a deep relationship. Literature protects man from outdated custom and traditions. It keeps man updated in this modern world. In the end, it can be summed up that life would have been dull dark and drab without literature. It is literature which has revolutionized human life by criticizing and correcting its negative aspects.




  • There is contrast between appearance and reality of people
  • People are not what they pretend a People have become materialistic
  • They think that world is immortal
  • They do not follow the principles laid down by the Holy Prophet (PBUH)


  • Lack of conscientiousness
  • Excessive love for material things
  • Rapid industrialization
  • Excessive urbanization
  • Age of science and technology
  • Absence of feelings of self-sacrifice
  • Less regard for humanity
  • Life of hurry and worry
  • Aversion from religious nuns


  • Disintegration of society
  • Luck of trust among people
  • Capitalism / Rich is getting richer, and poor are poorer
  • decline of moral values among people a
  • People are facing psychological problems
  • Money has a standard to judge persons’ character
  • Hollowness of modern society
  • Weakening family system


  • Stress on ethics in syllabus
  • Virtues of tolerance, patience, and self-sacrifice
  • Regard for the feelings of fellow beings
  • Active role of media
  • Role of literates and intellectual class
  • Appreciation of simplicity and internal beauty.
  • Efficient role of religious scholars in inculcating ethical norms and values.



Pakistani society is undergoing a continuous moral decay. People arc materialistic. Everyone is running behind money. People want to become rich overnight. Hypocrisy is prevalent in society. People are not what they pretend. There is a contrast between appearance and reality of people. They pose to be shy and modest but, they are mean and swindlers. They cheat and hoodwink others for their vested interests. Perhaps, they think that they are immortal. They do not follow the principles laid down by the Holy Prophet (PBUH). In fact, people lack ethical values. No one cares for others, they have become selfish. They do not think of others. Passion of humanity is missing among them. Corruption has added fuel to fire. People are snatching the rights of others. There is jealousy and envy in people. People are not happy. They know that happiness is achievable by serving humanity. However, they are not ready to sacrifice their unbridled wishes at any cost. People fight on trivial issues. The peace and harmony are destroyed in this way. Education system of the country has failed to produce men of letters. Instead, it is a factory which is producing men of money. Love, care, and sympathy are missing in society. People do not even tolerate small mistakes of others. Money has become a standard to judge a person. Character has no place in society. The government of Pakistan and parents have a positive role to play here. If certain steps are not taken, Pakistan will keep on suffering in this modem era.

 Lack of conscientiousness is the major cause of decline of moral values in Pakistan. People’s conscience seems no more alive in the country. They are not ready to fulfil their responsibilities. They have no respect for others’ feelings. They only care for their own benefits. People have become greedy. They have lost love for compassion. They are not ready to help the helpless. They are even ready to kill other people because they have become slaves of their wishes. Nowadays, people are not merciful. Shakespeare once said, “Quality of mercy is divine.” Unfortunately, conscientiousness and mercy are rare in society.

Moreover, materialism has become the order of the day. Luxuries of life are more important than human beings. Everyone wants to have more and more in this mortal world. People have no time to support others morally. Everyone wishes to Possess as much amount of wealth as he can. People leave their relatives in lurch in

Pursuit of material desires. Materialism has brought us away from nature. People hardly  spare time for leisure making. They have become machines. As a result, there is frustration and depression which roots out morality from society,

Furthermore, rapid industrialization and urbanization are death of soul in 21st century. Industrialization has widened the gap between the poor and the rich. More and more industries are being established in Pakistan. So, industries demand a lot of time. People are unable to spend time with the members of their family. There is a conflict between employers and employees. Employers want to enjoy the fruits of employee’s labor Employees are unable to get their due share in wealth. This phenomenon adds to moral decay in society. Employees are tempted to become as mean as employers arc. Same is the case with excessive urbanization in the country. People are leaving their near and dear ones to be settled in cities. In a city, even a Neighbor doc does not know who is living next to him. Our sense of observation is dying due to increasing urbanization.

21st century is the age of science and technology. Everyone uses different machines and gadgets on daily basis. People prefer to spend time on Facebook and Twitter rather than family and friends. It is ironical that people contact those who are sitting away from them. They do not pay attention to people sitting around them. So, technology itself becomes a barrier in the way of effective communication. Parents are  busy in their own work, while children do not sit in the company of elders. They keep on using internet and computer. This situation results in frustration. People desert one another and only think about their own profit and loss. Hence, megalith finds no sound in such circumstances.

Besides it, the spirit of self-sacrifice is hardly found among people. People do not feel the pain of others. They are not ready to spend even a single minute on others welfare. Each human being wants to move ahead of the other. Everyone wishes to build spacious houses and skyscrapers, but no one pays heed to the beauty of heart. Few ones cater to the needs of the poor. People are unmoved when a woman is harassed in society. They have become animals’ and beasts, there is no sense of sacrifice. People have become self-centered, there is pride and arrogance in their behavior. Someone has rightly said that the whole society needs moral training.

Likewise, there is no regard for humanity when one observes society. People are uncivilized and ill-mannered. They are devoid of sense of philanthropy. The rich are not ready to share their wealth with the poor. The poor do not bother to eat their livelihood through fair means. This scenario impacts the whole society badly. Both the rich and the poor kill one another to protect their interests. People cannot differentiate between good and evil. The rule of might is right is the order of the day. The state functionaries killed of people in Model Town. Still, no one is prepared to accept the responsibility of decadent. Nobody is held accountable for what happened to woman and citizens. In such situation, law of jungle prevails, and moral decay is obvious.

Apart from it, aversion from religious norms has also led to decline of ethics in society. There are nominal Muslims in Pakistan. They do not practice real teachings of Islam. They claim to be heirs of Islam, but their knowledge is insufficient. They have thrown Islam out of their lives. Tolerance, kindness, patience is the beauty of Islam, but they are missing in today’s Pakistan. People use Islam for their own benefits. pseudo-liberals interpret Islam in their own way, while religious extremists claim to be real preachers of Islam. Though Islam is complete code of life, yet they have failed in understanding it logically. Consequently, there is no for moral values in society.

In addition to this, life of hurry and worry has made man machine. His eyes are always on the clock. Man has become slave of time. It has become difficult for a person to think about things around him. Man, only satisfies his bodily needs but soul remains unattended. This gap between soul and body renders man hollow. Hollowest of modern man does not allow him to practice moral values in letter and spirit. Resultantly, he is caught up in the web of immoral activities. He does not value the wishes of his fellow beings. He becomes jealous of other possessions. He always tries to deprive others of what they have. This is height of jealousy which paves the way for moral degradation in society.

It has become a habit of people to tell a lie. People do not think about its consequences. They only want their temporary gains. Parents teach their children how to tell a lie to skip a particular situation. Nowadays, it is too difficult to recognize the dual faces of man in this greedy world. It is rightly said, “Appearances are often deceptive.”  cannot ascertain what the reality of a person is. Shakespeare rightly remarked, “one may smile, and smile, and be a villain.” So, lie is the root of all evils in society. One should keep in mind before telling a lie that a lie shrinks’ man but faces God.

Someone has rightly said that capitalism is the demise of morality. Pakistani is a capitalistic society. The greed and lust for the riches have eliminated moral from society. Even leaders of the country are morally corrupt. They are the 6110was of Machiavellian political philosophy. There is no importance of moral values this philosophy. Ln a society, where leaders are corrupt, honesty cannot be expected from —e. are involved in hoarding, black marketing, money laundering and Loitering. There is concentration of wealth in few hands. There is no qual distribution of resources in the county.

It is rightly said, “Every dark cloud bas a silver lining in it.” Some pragmatic steps can be taken to promote ethics and moral values in society. Syllabus which is taught

in a significant importance in this regard. It is necessary to stress morality in syllabus. Teachers can teach students what ethics are. Children can be guided that there is no good in deceiving others. They can be told that dishonesty is opposite of meritocracy. Parents can also make them aware of hazards and negative aspects of corruption. It is well said that deception has temporary basis., When children are aware of these things, they will become strong morally.

History bears testimony to the fact that virtues of tolerance and patience have great importance in man’s life. So, patience and endurance can win many hearts in society. Well, off people can play an important role in strengthening moral values in society. They can become role models for others through forbearance and tolerance. Only spirit of sacrifice can maintain peace, harmony, love, and integrity in society. Tolerant attitude can save society from downfall and degradation. People can get rid of many ills of society by tolerating other mistakes. Haste is not in man’s favor. People need to understand that it is not possible to become rich overnight. It is universally acknowledged truth, “Haste makes waste.”

Similarly, people should respect others’ sentiments. There is no need to become selfish, self-certified and narcissist. It is a moral principle to avoid other’s loss. Moral  values can only flourish in society if people have collective thinking. Regard for the feelings of others brings love and peace in society. People become united. They stand beside one another in hard time. As a result, society becomes ideal for enjoying moral values.

Media has become a great power in the world. It has an important role to play in society. Media can access every part of society. It can make people aware of the value of ethics. is also expected to act like a critic. It can censure the follies and absurdities of people. Many people follow media anchors. So, they can play the role of harbingers of society. Different programs can be broadcasted to inculcate moral values in people.

Apart from it, writers and intellectuals played a vital role in reforming British society. Writers like Bertrand Russell and George Bernard Shaw severely criticized weaknesses of people. They were aware of the significance of morality. They propagated morality throughout their lives. George Bernard Shaw once remarked, “Islam is the best religion, with the worst followers.” Pakistani society needs such moral teachers. Pakistani authors and intellectuals can play their part in moral uplift of society. For this, they will have to become the champions of morality. After that, they can scociety from immoral values.

The role of religious scholars is not as per expectations of people. ‘They have a strong hold over people. They can influence public opinion. Truly speaking, the scholas have failed to produce fruitful results in this regard. Scholars of different sects have differences among them. It is high time religious leaders shunned away their differences. They can educate people about positive impacts of morality. They have the power to mold people’s thinking in favor of ethics. It is self-axiomatic truth that a morally strong nation can face all the odds of life courageously.

In a nutshell, it can be said that people are morally weak in society. They always want to earn money by fair or foul means. Humanity is not found in the land of Iqbal. There is rampant corruption. People do not tolerate one another. Politicians exploit the masses by making false promises. Youngsters do not obey their elders. Elders are not affectionate with their younger ones. Theft, kidnapping for ransom and corruption are common. People are even involved in drug and human trafficking. Child abuse and harassment of women occur on daily basis. All these ills are found in our society because people are morally weak. They have failed in understanding true teachings of religion. If logical and rational steps are not taken to train people morally, chaos and anarchy will prevail in society.




  • It is true to say that not economy, but politics is a key to success in the mode world

Supporting Arguments

  • Economic development of any country is impossible without political stability political stability brings good governance in a country
  • The use of natural resources is difficult in a country where political instability prevails
  • Rule of law which attracts investors in a country, can be ensured by strong political leadership
  • Equitable resource management is promoted by visionary leadership in the world
  • Politically strong countries ensure quality education which results in robust economy
  • Huge population of a country can be turned into its resource through farsighted and honest politicians
  • Equal opportunities for all and sundry are hallmark of democratic governments in the whole world
  • Politics not economy protect human rights in the world
  • Developed countries like USA, China, Britain, Germany, and Various others have reached the zenith of glory through strong political leaders not economy
  • Politics brings unity among people in different countries
  •  Political leaders not economic experts formulate pro-people policies in the world
  • Powerful and honest leaders maintain harmony and peace in their country’s Deplorable conditions of Middle East, African countries as well as Pakistan are  due to political instability not weak economy
  • Unstable governments result in bad governance which ultimately brings economic downfall of the country
  • Natural resources of any country are worthless if it lacks in mature politicians
  • Therefore, it can be said beyond any doubt that not economy, but politics is key to success in the world



It is true to say that not economy, but politics is a key to success in the world. Economic development of any country depends on political stability. If a country is politically strong, its economy will grow at a rapid pace. Without powerful and farsighted political leadership, the dream of economic development cannot be materialized. Good governance, rule of law, speedy justice, and equal opportunities for all are necessary to bring economic prosperity in the world. Political stability can only bring economic development. If a country is endowed with multiple natural resources, all these resources can be worthless owing to weak and inept political leadership. Therefore, it is rightly said that Pakistan is rich in natural resources but poor in their management. Developed countries have progressed through their strong and farsighted leadership not economy. However, many Middle Eastern and African countries are faced with manifold economic problems due to dictatorship and dishonest leaders. Visionary leaders formulate lengthen and conducive policies for economic boom. On the other hand, people are exploited economically where there is dictatorial rule. Therefore, it can be justifiably said that politics is a real key to success in the world. It is high time Pakistani government took pragmatic steps to bring political stability in the country. Pakistan can get its due place in the comity of nations if it succeeds in getting rid of political instability. On the contrary, nation will face insurmountable challengers in the future if this trend continues in the country.

Moreover, economic development of a country is impossible without political stability. Politically unstable countries cannot make efficient policies for economic advancement. Such countries face manifold hurdles in the way of socio-economic development due to inconsistent policies. They cannot manage national resources i efficiently. Every step toward advancement fails owing to lack of consensus among leaders. Dishonest leaders only secure their interests rather than people’s interests. The masses face poverty, inflation and frustration where politics fails in ensuring equality’ justice and unity. Hence, it can be inferred that political stability is a prerequisite for economic development in the world.

Furthermore, the importance of good governance cannot be denied for boosting up economy. Good governance ensures accountability and transparency in institutions. The malaise Ofc0iTuption can be rooted out through efficient governmental institutions. Good

governance promotes meritocracy in society. Administrative institutions provide equal services to the masses. People are given freedom of speech, thought and expression through good governance. Therefore, it plays a vital role in socio-economic development of society. Honest and patriotic leadership ensures good governance in the world. Hence, not economy but politics is key to success in the world.

In addition to it, natural resources of a country have significant role in economic development. Visionary leaders leave no stone unturned to tap them. They strive hard to make best use of them. They bring economic prosperity through harnessing resources efficiently. Leaders address crises of countries and provide services to people to fulfil their basic needs. Leaders extend their cooperation to their neighboring countries to reap the fruits of their natural resources. If a country is politically weak and inefficient, it will fail in deriving optimum benefit from its natural resources. The pathetic condition of Pakistani economy is a point in case. Thus, the role of strong political leadership in harnessing natural resources is more important than economy in the world. Economy of any Country can go down if there is political instability in it.

Rule of law has a great significance in economic advancement of a country. Chaos and anarchy spread quickly without rule of law in society. People cannot play their due role in development where they feel insecure. Foreign investors also demand peaceful and conducive environment for their investment. They do not invest in a country where they observe political turmoil. They do not invest their money in such countries. Lack of foreign direct investment in Pakistan is the outcome of cheap Pakistani politics. While developed countries enjoy the benefits of FDI for providing healthy environment to them. Rich countries also invest their capital abroad owing to increasing terrorism and extremism in country. People have become helpless and disappointed due to absence of rule of law in the country. Economy cannot maintain rule of law in society. Visionary leadership can only ensure rule of law in society.

Apart from it, equal distribution of resources is imperative to maintain unity, integrity, and solidarity in society. Unequal distribution of resources creates disharmony in a country. People do not show patriotism in a country where resources are unequally distributed. Farsighted leaders are conscious of this problem. They try hard to maintain equal distribution of resources. They devise impartial mechanism of distribution. They know that unequal distribution is dangerous for unity of a country. Pakistani ethnic challenges also emerged from unfair distribution of resources among provinces. Military rule in the country further weakened democracy in the country. Hence, it can be Understood that equal distribution of resources is only possible in a country where political leaders are wise. Therefore, it is proved, not economy but politics is a key to success in the world.

Similarly, rapid increase in population has become a daunting task for countries to face with. The more the needs of population are, the more resources are required to fulfill these needs. Various problems emerge in society due to increasing population. However judicious politicians can tum huge population into human resource and capital for country. China is the largest populated country in the world. It is the country of more than one billion people. China is the second largest economy of the world. This credit goes to its visionary politicians not economy. On the contrary, Pakistan’s population is 185 million as per latest economic survey. However, inefficient, and corrupt leadership has made whole nation beggar. Their insatiable greed for money has badly affected every institution of the country. If they work with honesty and sincerity, the country can climb the ladder of success easily. Hence, it is politics not economy which is a key to development in the world.

Besides that, quality education has a great significance in making society civilized. Quality education is real panacea for all social evils in the world. Insightful political leaders are aware of its importance. They devise effective and long-Term policies for promotion of quality education in their countries. They recognize that quality education is crucial for development in this competitive world. Quality education makes man aware of the difference between good and bad. It infuses potential into people through which they can overcome multiple challenges in life. Democratic governments of the world take effective measures to impart quality education in their countries. Again, politics leads to success in the world.

Likewise, efficient political leaders are always cautious about maintaining human rights in their countries. They take every step to protect human rights in society. They do not compromise on inalienable rights of people. If they fail to secure the rights of people, they must face many hurdles in next election. Politicians are answerable to the masses in democratic governments. Constitutionally, they are protectors of human rights in a country. One can observe in the world that it is too difficult to violate human rights in the modern world. Politics not economy has made it possible for every Tom, Dick, and Harry to enjoy human rights in the world.

Developed countries like USA and China have reached the height of glory owing to their leadership not economy. China got independence in the same decade in which Pakistan got freedom, However, the leaders of China tried hard to make their Country prosperous. Their sincerity and devotion to their countries are worth praising in the world. However, Pakistani leadership failed in making the country prosperous and strong It is the outcome of their dishonesty. If they use their power for the betterment of nation, they can root out every hurdle in the way of development. The leaders of countries have no magic but will work for their nations. Hence, it can be said that not economy but politics is key to success.               

In the same manner, politics brings unity and integrity in countries. Everyone knows that in democratic set up, after some prescribed time, elections are held. Government introduces policies for the development of society. They devise effective mechanism to ensure good governance in their countries. They try utmost to address the grievances of the masses. They provide equal opportunities to all. They take maintain law and order in society. They protect rights of minorities; their prospects promote welfare of people. It is a natural phenomenon that equality, justice, and brotherhood ultimately bring unity in a nation. So, it is politics not economy which is responsible for maintaining unity and integrity in the world.

Adding more to it, politicians, not economic experts formulate policies which are  beneficial for all and sundry in different countries. Independent economists always consider their own interest while making policies. Economists are not answerable to the masses. In past, exploitation of labor class by industrialists bears testimony to it that economists always plundered common man through their policies. However, people are free from exploitation where political structure is strong. In USA, no money bill is passed unless it gets approved form people’s representatives. So, it seems obvious that not economy, but politics is key to success in the world.

In the same way, deplorable condition of Middle Eastern countries including, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon are due to political instability. These countries are blessed with unlimited indigenous resources. Continuous dictatorial rule in these countries has  destroyed peace in these countries. The condition of African countries like Sudan, Libya and Nigeria can be rightly pointed out in this regard. Thousands of people have lost their lives owing to political instability in these countries. These countries need strong political culture not economy to come out of persistent crises. Therefore, it can be concluded with evidence that strong political system not economy ensures happiness.

Finally, natural resources of any country are worthless unless countries have strong political system. Visionary leaders formulate strong foreign policies based on Welfare Of the whole nation. They maintain friendly relations with their neighbors which result in huge inflow of foreign capital. Owing to huge foreign direct investment, Countries tap their natural resources. The masses reap the fruits of their indigenous resources in the form of development and prosperity. Pakistan is also endowed with multiple natural resources. Despite having rich resources like Thar coal, wind energy, solar and tidal energy, energy crisis is increasing day aner day. The whole nation is unable to take benefit from its resources. Economic crisis emerges from political instability. Without effective political system, the solution of these challenges is impossible in the country. Therefore, what is needed are visionary political leaders not economy to get rid of economic hurdles in the way of development.

To sum up, both economy and politics are necessary to achieve economic development and success in the world. However, the role of strong political leaders is more important than economy in climbing the mountain of success. Robust system can resolve every hurdle in the way of success and development in the world. While robust economy is ruined when political system is weak.’ The difference between developed and developing countries is enough to understand the importance of effective political system in the world. Pakistan is also facing manifold hindrances in the way of development due to political instability. It is high time the government took pragmatic steps to bring strong political system in the country. Stephen Cohen rightly said, “the lesson of history is that you can’t get your economy right, if you don’t get your politics right.” Therefore, it is easily concluded that politics is key to success in the world.




  • Population is rapidly increasing in Pakistan.


  • Illiteracy
  • Male-dominating society
  • Less usage of contraceptives                                                     
  • Inefficient role of government
  • Misinterpretation of religion Conservative thinking
  • Unemployment /lack opportunities Technological advancement                                   


  • Increasing unemployment
  • Difficulties of people in earning livelihood
  • Low standard of living
  • Child labor and slavery
  • Burden on national resources
  • Sense of deprivation
  • Terrorism, crime rate and social unrest
  • Men of letters are not produced
  • Remedial Measures
  • Family planning
  • Serious and sincere efforts of government
  • Positive role of media
  • Scholar’s role in correct interpretation of religion
  • Awareness among people at grass root level
  • More occupational opportunities
  • women empowerment
  • Role of feudal and tribal chieftains



Overpopulation is intolerable for any country in the world. As far as Pakistan is concerned, there is rapid increase in population. People are paying no attention to this unbridled growth of population. Twenty-first century is the age of science and modern technology. Gone were the days when states required manpower to defeat the enemy states. Quality not quantity matters in this modern era. But the situation is reverse in Pakistan. As per a report, five to six children are born after every single minute in Pakistan. As a result, there is a huge gap between demand and supply of different necessities of life. Energy is not available as per needs of the country. Unfortunately, people are more, and resources are scarce. Pakistan is the sixth most populated country in the world. It is an alarming situation. Standard of life is going down. State is unable to provide education to such a huge chunk of population. More than 40% population of the country is living below poverty line. Perhaps, people are unaware of the fact that country needs useful not useless citizens. Previous governments tried their level best to control over population but failed due to certain reasons. It is ironical that last census was held in 1998. It is impossible for the government to solve people’s problems without knowing their exact number. Present government has an effective role to play if it wants to curtail ever rising monster of over-population. If effective steps are not taken in this regard, it will become difficult for Pakistan to become a developed country.

As every problem has some causes, Illiteracy is the major cause of overpopulation in Pakistan. Literacy rate in the country is almost 58%. The standard to declare a person  literate is too low. A person who can read and write is considered literate. Truly speaking, real literacy rate is not more than 20%, so illiterate ones cannot understand the consequences of overpopulation. They keep on increasing their number. They cannot comprehend those resources of the country cannot afford high birth rate. In this way, illiteracy is responsible for population explosion.

Similarly, Pakistani society is a patriarchal society. In most of the cases, men dominate women in different fields of life. Normally, men decide how many children they want to have. Woman who bears the brunt of childbirth has no say in this regard.

Usually, a baby boy is considered a blessing for parents. On the other hand, baby girl is taken as a curse in society. She is not welcomed whole-heartedly. People keep on adding to their number to have more and more baby boys. This attitude gives further boost to overpopulation.

Likewise, people do not know about the usage of contraceptives to Prevent excessive childbirth. There are a few families which want to have limited number of children. Unfortunately, they are unaware of precautionary measures to restrict population growth. They are ignorant of the act that they can reduce their birth rate without compromising their sexual desires. It is strange that such a situation is prevalent in the country in this modem age. Someone has rightly said that ignorance of law is no excuse. Hence, less knowledge of a certain preventive measure adds fuel to fire.

Moreover, inefficient role of government encourages over population in the country. The government has not introduced pragmatic policies to control over population. There is no law in the country which can help overcome this issue. It seems as if politicians were not willing to resolve this issue because unborn have no votes. In the same way, successive governments failed to provide vocational training to people to turn them from liability into human resource in the country. So, irrational policies could not address this issue on humanitarian grounds.

Furthermore, misinterpretation of religion played havoc in this respect. Certain narrow-minded mullahs say that it is against the spirit of Islam to reduce childbirth. In fact, they are not fond of ijtihad. Their thinking is outdated, obsolete and backward. They are not enlightened scholars. They interpret principles of religion as per their wishes. Clergy talk irrationally in Pakistan. They issue verdicts against people who are working to bring awareness about the hazards of overpopulation. This archaic attitude further worsens the situation.

Besides it, unemploymentadds insult to injury. Many people in the country do not have jobs. They are living from hand to mouth. Unemployed ones do not have opportunities to enjoy recreational activities. Such people do not have enough money to go picnic. They hardly manage to watch a movie at cinema. In these circumstances, they spend most of their time at home. Their life partner is the only source of enjoyment for them. Owing to their companionship, population growth of country has gone out of control.

Finally, technological advancement has further aggravated the situation. In past, there were many fatal diseases. Those diseases proved deadly for human beings. Progress in the field of medical science has cured various fatal diseases. Man has also brought child mortality rate down. Death rate has been controlled in many countries of the world. Except developed countries, birth rate has gone high in rest of the world. It can be said that technological advancement has a role in rapid growth of population.

There are many effects of overpopulation. Its major effect is unavailability of basicfacilities of life, A country like Pakistan cannot entertain ever increasing population.

There are fewer but people are more. As a result, six million children are out of school as per Economic Survey of Pakistan (2014-15).

There are few hospitals in the country. The staff of these hospitals can provide services to a limited number of people. Consequently, common man faces a lot of problems when he suffers from diseases. Pure drinking water has become a rare commodity owing to which people are suffering from water-borne diseases.

Secondly, overpopulation has disturbed the socio-economic fabric of society. It has given a rise to materialism. People having more children must earn a lot to cater to their needs. They must work more which has created a gap among people. They are living a life of hurry and worry. They have gone away from nature. On the one hand, overpopulation has weakened their economy, on the other hand, people hardly find time to sit with their near and dear ones. It is not in favor of people of the country.

Thirdly, overpopulation has led to pollution in the country. There is rapid industrialization and urbanization in the country. This scenario has badly impacted the country’s weather pattern: There are many vehicles which bum fossil fuels. Industries discharge poisonous gases and hazardous waste material. Urbanization causes deforestation. All these factors contribute to abrupt weather changes in the country. Temperature in summer goes up to 500C. Last year, hundreds of people lost their lives in Karachi owing to heat waves. This may also result in melting of glaciers and unprecedented rains. Unfortunately, the country must confront with heavy floods.

Fourthly, overpopulation gives birth to child labor and slavery. As stated earlier, most of the people are illiterate. When heads of the families are unable to meet the needs of their family members, they send their children to work. First, it is against the law of state. Secondly, it is against humanity to force children for hard labor in their early age. Children are exploited sexually when they are at work. They must survive in hostile working conditions. Children are forced to work beside heavy machinery which is a threat to their life. They get less remuneration as compared to young ones. All these factors bring child labor and slavery in the country. There is a sense of deprivation and Frustration in people because of overpopulation.

Fifthly, most of the people have desires to be fulfilled. Everyone wants to be admired and appreciated. People want to live a luxurious life: They want to upgrade their living standard. It is only possible when people have a lot. of money. The monster of Overpopulation hardly allows one to accomplish one’s desires. When one is unable to achieve what one wishes, one gets frustrated and annoyed. There prevails depression and discontentment in society owing to over population.

Sixthly, overpopulation breeds terrorism and extremism in the country. Overpopulation and poverty are directly proportional to each other. It is rightly said that poverty is the death of exceptional skill and talent. Poverty is the root cause of all social evils. When people are unable to fulfil their wishes through fair means, they get involved in negative activities. They commit crimes and snatch other’s right. It is much easier to brainwash a poor one than a rich one. Terrorists exploit poor masses to get their vested interest. Some of the deprived ones even get ready to become suicide bombers.

Lastly, there are few men of letters in Pakistan due to overpopulation. Education is regarded as the backbone of every county’s economy. Educational standards are under continuous decline in Pakistan. Teachers are unable to provide quality education to children. At the end of the day, there are few men of letters in the country. Apart from this unchecked increase in population burdens the already scarce national resources. Pakistan has not been able to tap indigenous resources as per its high population growth. Such situation can result in chaos and anarchy in society.

As every problem has a few solutions, strict implementation of family planning program is the major remedy to this issue. Government can play a positive role in curbing population growth in the country. There is a dire need to implement family planning in the country. Lady health workers can guide parents about negative impacts of overpopulation. They can create awareness about the usage of contraceptive to avoid unwanted population. Doctors and educated people of society can persuade people to limit their childbirth. In this way, Pakistan can get rid of this menace.

It is rightly said that education is a real panacea to socio-economic problems of society. Government needs to allocate more funds for education sector. The education system of Pakistan requires complete overhauling. An educated person can easily differentiate between good and evil. He can understand that overpopulation is not in favor of Pakistan. A literate one is aware of the consequences of overpopulation.

An educated one is useful while an uneducated one is a burden on national resources. Education can help Pakistan solve this problem on pragmatic grounds.

Besides that, vocational training and occupational opportunities are a prerequisite to overcome this issue. Currently, there is bad governance in Pakistan. Country is faced with many issues due to which there is unemployment in the country. Government must improve governance to create employment opportunities. Owing to poor law and order situation, foreiY1 investors are reluctant to invest in Pakistan. If security matters are addressed, investors will automatically resume financial activities in the country. This will create job opportunities for people. Vocational training is also necessary to enable people meet their both ends. When people are prosperous, they will not compromise on their standard of living.

In the same way, media has become a great power in the modem world. Media can influence people to a large extent. Certain channels and newspapers have high rating in

Pakistani society. They can throw light on threats of overpopulation. News anchors and writers can guide people how to control overpopulation. Many programs can be broadcasted to highlight the destruction and ruination caused by overpopulation; one can say that media has instrumental role to play in tackling this issue.

Currently, there is no law in the country to curb overpopulation. Law can be introduced to nip this evil in the bud. Those people who are responsible for overpopulation despite having less resources can be punished. A particular amount of fine can be imposed on them. It is also inevitable to introduce a term of four to five years of imprisonment. These steps may seem harsh apparently. But when it comes to reforming society, some strict steps become unavoidable.

Adding more to it, educated and moderate scholars can bring everlasting change as for as overpopulation is concerned. Different religious scholars have thousands of followers. They can expose those mullahs who misinterpret religious teachings as per their own wishes. They declare steps like family planning void and illegal. They are conservative in their approach toward life. They have forgotten that Islam is a universal religion. They are not changing as per the modern trends of the world. Islam welcomes change and difference of opinion. The doors of ijtihad are always open in Islam. Rational scholars can convince narrow-minded mullah and people that birth control is as per the spirit of Islam.

Finally, women empowerment can help reduce high birth rate in the Country. Women are considered subhuman in many areas of Pakistan. Gender equality is a myth in the land of Bacha Khan. Women are not consulted about the size of family. It is man who decides how many children he wishes. Woman is considered a machine for

giving birth to maximum number of children. The government can take effective steps to 3mpower women, so that they can play their part in defeating the menace of overpopulation.

To conclude, it can be said that population has reached an alarming stage in the end Of Quaid. Overpopulation has kept Pakistan away from becoming a self-reliant country. Great nations have progressed by leaps and bounds after solving their issue of Overpopulation. Contrary to this in Third World countries like Pakistan, overpopulation as added to the miseries of people. People are unable to get education. There is poverty, corruption, and instability This problem needs immediate attention if Pakistan wants to become great and strong. Common man, civil society and intellectuals can play pivotal role in this regard. If Pakistanis have the courage to fight this issue, their posterity will be bright future. If serious efforts are not taken to root this issue out, it will become a threat to the survival of country.




  • Violence is the last refuge of incompetent because a competent never falls prey to violence easily

Supporting Arguments

  • Violence is against the duality of man
  • Incompetents destroy government buildings and infrastructure
  • Violence is the weapon of cowards
  • Incompetents resort to violence to achieve their nefarious designs
  • Violence is not a solution to any problem
  • Taliban are incompetent because they support violence
  • Violence tarnishes the image of a nation
  • Humanity is suffering due to violence of incompleteness
  • Quaid-e-Azam was a competent leader who never supported violence
  • Children and women also fall a prey to incompetent’s violent activities
  • The Holy Prophet (PBUH) always preferred peace to violence    
  • Mandela, a great leader, completed his struggle peacefully
  • It is rightly said that Quality of mercy is divine
  • FDI goes down in violent society
  • Violence throws societies in darkness



Violence is the last refuge of incompetent because a competent never falls a prey to violence easily. An incompetent has weak temperament. He lacks understanding power. That’s why, he turns violent on trivial issues. People suffer due to his aggressive behavior. A competent analysis every situation rationally. He faces difficulties of life courageously. A competent supports peace throughout his life. He always condemns violence. A competent not only improves his life but also works for the prosperity of others. While an incompetent is unable to comprehend that happiness achieved through  violence is short-lived. He is unaware of the real hazards of violence. He always uses negative means to get his ends. An incompetent adds to the miseries of others. People  face lot of problems due to his acts of violence. An incompetent always chooses the path of conflict. He tries to create disturbance in society to achieve his goals. He cannot fulfil his negative desires in a peaceful environment. Hence, it can be said that incompetent and weak-minded ones always use force but wise apply their intellectual power to tackle any situation.

Moreover, violence of incompetent brings chaos and anarchy in a society. Incompetents destroy everything which comes in their way. They exploit people after creating a volatile situation. People feel terrified. Everyone tries to save himself from violence. Violence weakens the writ of the state in any area. People are intimidated. They run to safe places to protect themselves from destruction.

It is universally acknowledged that violence is against the dignity of man. Man is rational being. He is a social and superior animal. Man is superior to other animals for his intellect. So, it is below his manly stature to react violently in every situation. Men should solve their conflicts and disputes logically. Negotiations are always preferable to violence. Incompetents forget the importance of talks. They settle their issues only through use of force and violence.

Similarly, incompetents destroy government buildings and infrastructure. They bomb schools and government offices. They think that they can create fear in the mindsof people through their violent attacks. Government faces huge losses which affecteconomy of a country. Many people lose their lives and property. Incompetents do not Italie that such acts are not in any one’s favor. This fear is short-lived because people become courageous to face it. In the end, peace wins, and violence loses its ground.

Violence is the weapon of cowards. Cowards use force to create their hegemony. They create fear but they can never win the hearts of people. While a brave and Courageous never uses violence as a tool to get people’s support. He attracts people through his character and personality. He wins a pennant place in the hearts of people peacefully. So, a valiant gathers people through love and a coward through violence.

Likewise, incompetents’ resort to violence to achieve their nefarious designs. Violence is the trump card of incompetents. In fact, they lack competence to face ups and downs of life courageously. They are unable to materialize their dreams into reality in a peaceful way. As a result, they consider violence the only remedy to their problems. They fulfil their own desires by looting and plundering others. They take others’ lives for their survival. Such acts are ridiculous.

History is evident of the fact that violence is not a solution to any problem. Violence breeds more violence. It snatches People’s near and dear ones from them. Violence makes life miserable. It roots out all the beauties and attraction of life. No one wants to visit violent- hit areas except some welfare organizations. Peace is desirable and violence is highly despicable.

In the same manner, Taliban are basically incompetent. They always use force against innocent people and government functionaries. More than 50,000 people have lost their lives in violent attacks of Taliban. Many families have lost their bread winners. Thousands of mothers must face deaths of their sons. There is an atmosphere of fear in Pakistan due to violence of terrorists.

Violence tarnishes the image of a country. No one wants to visit a violence-hit area. Life is a precious diamond. That’s why, everyone wants to live in a peaceful county. Vi01ence-hit nations have no respect at international level. Most of the countries call back their diplomatic missions from volatile regions. As a result, violence hit counties remain  alone in the international arena.

Furthermore, humanity has suffered a lot due to violence of incompetents. The World War I and Il were the result of incompetence of world leaders. There was a  massive violence. Millions of people lost their lives. Currently, many counties are in the

clutches of violent activities of incompetents in Africa and Middle East. Incompetent organizations like ISIS always take refuge to violence and demy the peace of the world.

Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was a competent leader. He always avoided violence. He was s true follower of constitution. He always believed in diplomacy. He succeeded in making Pakistan without use of force. He always advised the Muslims to remain peaceful. Jinnah always supported peace and democratic principles in his life.

In addition, violence of incompetents spares no one. Even children and women become victim of their heinous acts. Incompetents consider violence their favorite hobby at their home as well. They beat their wives and children on petty issues. It shows their weak mentality. They punish their children and destroy their psyche. Such disturbed children are unable to find a reasonable place in society.

 The Holy Prophet (PBUH) always preferred peace to violence. He (PBUH) always stood for the rights of the weak and oppressed. He (PBUH) forgave his enemies. He (PBUH) pardoned the killer of his uncle. He was a great symbol of tolerance and patience. He solved different issues logically. On conquest of Makkah, He showed mercy to the worst enemies of Islam like Abu Sufyan. Incompetents should learn from his life and remain away from violence.

In the same fashion, foreign investment dries due to violence of incompetents in a county. Pakistan is a good example to be quoted in this regard. Foreign direct investment is less than a billion in the land of pure. Investors feel shy off investing in Pakistan due to security threats. Tourism industry has faced huge losses. Foreigners have stopped visiting Pakistan. Every businessman invests in a peaceful area. Pakistani businessmen are shifting their business abroad due to violence.

Violence throws societies into darkness. People cannot live a free life in disturbed areas. Violence limits individual’s liberty. People cannot move freely from one place to another. No innovation takes place in such situations. People live pathetic life where nothing is safe from the followers of violence.

Adding more to it, Nelson Mandela was a great leader. He protected the rights of  Black in South Africa. Initially, his movement was violent. As time passed by, he realized that he could reach destination only through peace. He was imprisoned for more than 25 years but he continued his struggle peacefully. He loved peace and equality. He was ready to sacrifice his life for his cause but avoided taking lives of others. He succeeded in his aim through peace, He forgave his enemies, when he came to power.

William Shakespeare, the great dramatist said, “Quality of mercy is divine.” It is moral responsibility of educated and wise to persuade incompetents to leave violent activities. They can be convinced that only peace can bring real happiness. There is a dire need to educate the poor class. They are easily misguided and brainwashed by lovers of violence. Only education can enable them to distinguish between right and wrong. They can be taught that to err is human and to forgive is divine. Those who do not want to come to right path should be dealt with iron hands for progress and prosperity of humanity.

In a nutshell, it can be said that brave and wise never support violence. It is the most favorite tool of incompetents. Incompetents spread hate and violence to disturb the peace of world. They lack sagacity to understand the importance of peace. Incompetents kill human beings, destroy buildings and infrastructure due to their selfish agenda. They commit brutal acts to rule this world. Their lust for wealth and power makes them blind. They have no mercy for others. Common man faces huge losses due to atrocities of incompetents. On the contrary, competent ones always strive to bring peace and betterment in the world. They respect humanity and work for its survival on this planet. Competent ones take care of all who are around them. They try their level best to facilitate their fellow beings, but incompetents do not have such feelings. They always fry to add hardships to the lives of their fellow beings through violence. In the end, it can be said that incompetents consider violence the only key to success.




  • Energy crisis is a matter of serious concern in Pakistan


  • Poor policies of government
  • Lack of consensus among politicians to build new dams
  • Scarcity of required funds to launch new power projects
  • Less use of modem technology
  • Flaws in regulation and distribution of electricity
  • Misuse of energy by common man
  • Failure to exploit national resource’s Weak role of media


  • Excessive load shedding
  • Economic downfall
  • Unemployment and poverty
  • Psychological problems in people
  • Widening gap between state and public
  • Declining export


  • Consensus among politicians’ new dams
  • Proper use of national resources modem technology a Reforms in regulation and distribution of electricity
  • Far-sightedness of government an Active role of media Q Population control



Energy crisis is a matter of serious concern in Pakistan. It is worsening day by day. Energy crisis is an international issue. Several countries are facing this problem, but Pakistan is witnessing an unprecedented crisis of energy. It has given a severe setback to the country’s economy. It has badly disturbed the socio-economic fabric of Pakistani society. It has added to the miseries of people. Previous governments did not pay heed to this issue. Adequate steps were not taken to boost up energy sector in last dictator’s nine-year rule. Same was the case with last democratic government. Increasing needs for electricity were not considered. It is need of hour to address this issue. If the problem is tackled properly, the situation can be reversed. Solution to this problem can result in rapid economic growth. Social, cultural as well as educational development of Pakistan is linked with the eradication of energy woes. On the contrary, if the problem is not given due attention, it will further aggravate the situation. Resultantly, prevalent darkness will become the fate of the country. Then, there will be no use of crying over spilt milk.

As every problem has some causes, poor policies of previous governments are the major cause of this crisis. Present government is not taking concrete steps to curb the issue. Usage of energy is increasing day by day, but production of energy is not as per requirement. The government has failed to keep pace with growing needs of energy. It did not take initiatives to add to the national energy pool. It appears that increase in the production of energy is excluded from priorities of the government. Ultimately, this ignorance along with the poor policies results in energy crisis in Pakistan.

In addition to this, lack of consensus among politicians to build new dams is also one of the prime reasons of energy crisis in the country. Our politicians lack unity. They are badly divided pertaining to this issue. Everyone wants to secure his vested interests. Such kind of personalization leads towards disunity. Karabagh dam is the best example in this regard. A few parliamentarians say that this dam cannot be built until they are alive. Construction of this dam can minimize energy crisis as well as check flood destruction that comes every year. Building new dams is a viable solution but political wrangling is standing in the way of this process.

Besides political disunity, scarcity of required funds is also adding insult to injury. Economic condition of the country is not up to the mark. Pertinent funds are not available to launch new projects. Budget deficit does not allow the construction of neu dams. Few big and several small dams and reservoirs are needed to address energy crisis properly. Lack of funds is an impediment in the way of achieving our goals.

Furthermore, less use of modem technology is also contributing a lot to this problem. It is clear before everyone with even a modicum of knowledge that modern technology has become a dire need for making progress nowadays. We are lagging in this field. Pakistanis are not using advanced technological tools in a proper way to get rid of energy crisis. We are not utilizing wind and solar energy properly. This improper use of modem technology is resulting in present crisis of energy in Pakistan.

Likewise, flaws in regulation and distribution of electricity are also fanning the flames of energy crisis in the country. Pakistan is already facing shortfall of electricity. Line losses and power theft are further aggravating the situation. All this is done because of the weak regulation and distribution policies of the government. Corrupt officers, linemen and meter readers abet public in power theft. It results in economic loss to WAPDA which ultimately leads to this crisis.

Similarly, it is no secret that common man is misusing energy. Along with power theft, people also use electricity carelessly. They do not bother to tum off extra lights and fans. Electric bulbs are excessively used in shopping centers. Decorative lights on the occasions of marriages and other festivals have become a fashion nowadays. Unnecessary use of air- conditioners at homes, offices and marriage halls is causing energy crisis as well. Majority of Pakistanis use electricity in a careless manner which is the prime reason of this issue.

Likewise, failure to exploit national resources also results in energy crisis in Pakistan. Pakistan does not lack resources. It is the poor management which results in Problems like energy crisis. Pakistan has several thousands of tons of coal in Thar. If this coal is used properly in production of energy, not only the present crisis can be solved but future of the country can also be secured from energy crisis. Our coal reserves are Capable Of producing energy for 50 years. Same is the case with wind and solar energy. Ch01istan and Thar deserts are the most suitable places for solar power projects. Pakistan has natural resources in huge quantity, but the ability of exploitation is lacking badly.

Finally, less investigative role of media is also adding fuel to fire. Media does not fully help WAPDA in indicating power theft and corruption of government

officers in this regard. Same is the case with spreading awareness among masses to save

energy. Media has failed to convince people to lessen the careless use of electricity. Along with less vibrant use of media, industrialization and overpopulation are also breeding energy crisis in Pakistan. Media is not playing its due role in highlighting the factors responsible for this problem in the country.

As each crisis has some effects, load shedding is one of the biggest effects of energy crisis. All the cities as well as villages of the country are in darkness. People do not have enough electricity. It has disturbed socio-economic fabric of Pakistani society. Education of children is affected due to long hours power cuts in the country. Same is the case with treatment in hospital. Patients are facing difficulties because of energy crisis.

Similarly, economy of the country has received a severe setback owing to energy crisis. Industries are closed due to frequent power breakdown. Shopping is not easy because shops are closed before the routine timing. Factories are facing problems in the completion of their targets. This situation does not only affect the rich, but the poor also face difficulties. Even tailors are unable to earn their livelihood according to their needs. The reason behind all this is energy crisis. Resultantly, economic sector of the country is damaged badly.

Moreover, energy crisis gives rise to unemployment and poverty. Energy crisis causes load shedding which leads to closure of industries. Consequently, there is no place for employees in factories. As unemployment and poverty are directly proportional to each other, poverty level also increases in Pakistan. Almost 40% of total population is living below the poverty line in Pakistan as per estimates.

Furthermore, energy crisis has also affected people mentally and psychologically. Psychosocial problems among public are increasing day by day. People have become habitual of electricity but now, they are facing unscheduled and frequent power breakdown. They are unable to sleep well. Neither they can get their clothes ironed nor they reach their offices in time. This situation is resulting in mental dissatisfaction. People are facing problems in maintaining their routine lives due to prevalent energy crisis in the country.

In addition to this, gap between state and public has reached an alarming stage because of this issue. People have lost their trust in their rulers. They even use harsh words against them. Respect of politicians is minimum in the eyes of public. Frequent strikes and sit-ins are the evidence. Respect for leaders is rare in society.

Finally, our exports are affected badly. It has given a massive blow to the country’s economy. It is the most dangerous impact of energy crisis in Pakistan. Deficiency m export is causing economic crisis as well. It is no secret that the situation is appalling but with constant smuggle and strong political will, it is still reversible. some concrete steps are needed to be taken. Following viable remedial measures can help a lot in ameliorating the condition.

As every problem has some solutions, consensus among politicians to build new dams can do much in this regard. There must be unity among our rulers. Interests of the country should be considered more important than personal interest. Our politicians should develop consensus upon building of Karabagh dam as well as many other new dams. Dams have several benefits. They can produce electricity, irrigate barren land, and promote fisheries. So, politicians should be united to pull the country out of this crisis.

In addition to this, proper use of national resources and modem technology can extirpate this crisis from the land of resilient. Pakistan is rich in natural resources. There are reserves of coal in millions of tons. Besides coal, the country has natural gas in Baluchistan as well. These resources are needed to be exploited in proper manner to address this issue.

Furthermore, reforms in regulation and distribution of electricity are the need of hour. Line losses and power theft can also be hindered through modem and advanced technological tools. Hundreds of megawatts of electricity are wasted in terms of theft. Impediments in the way of theft can do much in lessening the impact of energy crisis. Removal of corrupt officers and stoppage of theft can also help get rid of this menace.

Furthermore, far-sighted approach of government is required to tackle the problem permanently. Government should work according to increasing needs of energy. It must Consider the circumstances that can affect the country in coming days. If dams were built by previous governments, there would have been no energy crisis today. So, the present Government should do something to overcome the existing crisis as well as to secure the Country’s future. This kind of vision can eradicate energy crisis in Pakistan.

Similarly, investigative, and vibrant role of media is the key to uproot energy crisis  to a large extent. Media should play its due role in this regard. Investigation to curtail Power theft can ameliorate the condition. Awareness can also be spread among masses through electronic as well as print media to use electricity with care. Media should make People aware pertaining to proper use of energy. It should infant people that extra lights and fans must be timed off. Wastage of energy must be discouraged nationally.

Finally, population control can also bring desired results. Owing to growing population, usage of energy is increasing. This was not the case two decades back. Government should make people understand well that overpopulation will further aggravate the situation. This formula can do much in lessening the graveness of energy crisis.

To conclude, it can be said that energy crisis has reached an alarming stage. It is causing problems for Pakistanis in different walks of life. Amid all others, economy has received a huge setback. Hundreds of industries are closed due to long power cuts. It results in unemployment and poverty. Solution to this problem can improve the situation. Its solution can ensure progress and prosperity of the country. On the contrary, if this problem is not eradicated in time, it will add to hardships of people. Cost of living will go higher if energy crisis is not overcome. The solution needs full determination and strong political will. It can be overcome with the help of these two.




  • No doubt, where there is a will, there is a way

Supporting Arguments

  • A man of determination can do what he wishes to do in life
  • Many great men had a will to do something in their childhood and they achieved it There is nothing for those who lose heart at the face of difficulties
  • Jinnah had a strong will to have a separate homeland for the Muslims of subcontinent
  • Muslim caliphs had a will to expand their territory and they succeeded in it
  • Man’s strong will of doing something resulted in scientific inventions
  • Many other achievements are the result of man’s indomitable will
  • Even handicapped ones can make their way with the help of unconquerable will
  • Even today, a strong political will can ensure international peace
  • Pakistan can make progress by leaps and bounds if politicians show and have will to solve issues confronting the country
  • Biographers of eminent men prove this rule
  • Will plays its role not only for good things but also for bad one’s conclusion


No doubt, where there is a will, there is a way. It is a time tested saying which is hundred percent true. Anything can be achieved with the help of strong will and determination. Will is a prerequisite for success. It is only the power of will which helps man make his way even in tough circumstances of life. Achievements are the result of the endeavors of men having will power. It is the greatest driving force which gets through difficulties. Will is the most essential ingredient of success. Great warriors and conquerors had will power to conquer certain areas and same was the case with scientists and discoverers. Their willpower helped them achieve their objectives. Even the handicapped ones earned name and fame because they had a will to move forward. They overcame their physical disabilities with the help of will- power. Will not only plays its role in achieving good results but also in the pursuit of bad things. Whether the intentions are good or bad, nothing can be done without a strong will.

A man of determination can do what he likes or what he wants to do in life. It is because a determined man has a will of doing something. It is the willpower that compels him to work hard. In return, he succeeds. This success is the result of willpower. A strong will is the most essential requirement of success. It helps man a lot to move ahead in life.

All the great men had a will of doing something important in their childhood. The willpower drives them towards their goals. Nothing can be attained if strong will is absent. Napoleon, from the very beginning of his childhood, wanted to lead and command the army. He used to build snow forts and then to attack and defend them. Hewished to become a great warrior. So, his willpower helped him materialize his dreaminto reality.

On the contrary, there is no achievement for those who lack will. People having will succeed in life. If someone lacks strong will of being successful, he will lose heart in the time of difficulties. Resultantly, he will quit his efforts. People having weak willpower are not fully determined. That is why, they lose heart when they face trivial issues, they have no force to encourage them. So, they fail to achieve their goals and objectives in life.

Muslim caliphs had a will to expand their territory. This will have helped them to a large  extent in maximizing territory under their rule. The power of will played very important role in their expansion policy. They lacked resources and technology but possessed will to annex neighboring states. It was due to lack of will power that they ruled three continents. Their empire expanded to forty lakh square miles only within three decades. It  was not possible in the absence of a strong willpower.

Will of doing something results in scientific inventions. Scientists had a will to  invent modern tools. They wished to serve humanity. They constantly worked hard in this regard. Inventions like steam engines, wheel, telephone, internet, etc. are the examples of this phenomenon. It testifies the saying that where there is a will, there is always a way. If the scientists did not have will to do so, there would have been no inventions. It was ‘the will- power that helped them in their cause.

Moreover, many other achievements are followed by strong will as well. Will facilitates people in many spheres of life. It was the force of will that helped man land on the moon. People with the assistance of will, reached the top of Mount Everest. They discovered new pieces of land. America is an example which was discovered by Columbus. People go into depths of oceans. Information technology has developed to large extent. People have succeeded in bringing revolutions. All this is going on with the power of strong will.

Jinnah had a strong will to get a separate homeland for the Muslims of subcontinent. It appeared very tough in the beginning. Many people were of the view that it was impossible. Jinnah was fully determined, so he carried on his work. He worked hard day and night. He along with other Muslim leaders faced many hardships but did not give up. Eventually, he succeeded in his goal. Owing to willpower, he got a separate homeland for his nation.

The rule is not different for the handicapped ones. They can also make their way if they have willpower. Many disabled persons have made achievements in life as well. They broke all the social barriers in the way of their progress. They amazingly overcame their physical disabilities. History is full of such kind of examples. For instance, Dr. Taha Hussain was an Egyptian writer of modem Arabic literature. He became blind at the age of three. He did not lose heart and continued his educational career. Eventually, he did PhD. Same was the case with Helen Keller and John Milton. They also succeeded in their aims based on their willpower.

 In addition to this, man’s progress from chaos to order is due to his will. Barbarism has turned into civilization. People showed will to change their fate. Consequently, the situation is better as compared to past. People are educated and civilized. Women are given veneration. It was not the case in the past. It became possible due to willpower of human beings. Similarly, international peace is maintained with the help of will of many countries which show their intention to solve international disputes and issues on table.

Likewise, Pakistan can make progress by leaps and bounds if politicians have a will to do so. It is will that makes man great. A strong political will can change the fate of the county. An indomitable will is needed to make Pakistan strong and great. Many countries have made progress because their leaders were willing to develop their nations. The same can be done in Pakistan but not without a strong will.

Moreover, biographies of eminent men prove that a strong will makes the difference. All the great and successful men had one thing in common. They possessed a will for doing something great. Strong will is a key to success. Napoleon used to say, “Impossible is a word to be found in the dictionary of fools.” Abraham Lincoln very poor but with the help of will-power, became the president of America. Nelson Mandela remained in prison for 27 years but ultimately, he achieved his objective. These personalities could not have achieved their goals if the element of will was lacking.

In a nutshell, it can be said that where there is a will there is a way. Will is very essential part of success. It is the greatest driving force that helps man get through difficulties. It enables people to find their ways. It is will power that gives ma determination as well as commitment to do miracles. Resultantly, commitment to the objectives yields rich results. It assures man that success is not only restricted to a few. Anyone having willpower can succeed in life. One should overcome one’s faults anaccept challenges in life courageously. If one does not dream of good things, one performs well. It should be one’s motto never to feel dejected. Nothing is impossible man. One-should never forget, where there is a will, there is always a way.




  • Punctuality is not the virtue of bored                                                                                             

Supporting Arguments

  • Punctuality is the virtue of kings
  • A punctual person is always a winner           
  • Punctuality is a key to success
  • Only punctual nations can become great nations
  • Punctuality is the most precious thing in this world
  • Punctuality is also important for staff in hospitals
  • Everyone wants to work with a punctual person
  • Punctuality is inevitable in businesses well
  • All great persons in this world were punctual in their lives
  • Punctuality is the only panacea to get rid of red-tapism Nowadays, unpunctuality has become a fashion
  • Punctuality shows one’s sincerity and honesty in work
  • Punctuality makes life disciplined
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah was very regular and punctual in his life
  • Unpunctuality results in failure
  • Nature is also punctual



Punctuality is not the virtue of bored. It is the habit of civilized and cultured people. Punctuality has a great value in human life. Someone has rightly said that time and tide

waits for none. Those who consider punctuality the virtue of bored remain behind in life. They are not able to upgrade their standard of living. People leave them behind and they are forgotten forever. Time values those who respect it. No one can reach the height of glory without being punctual. Punctuality is the virtue of great leaders. It fulfils a man’s life with satisfaction and happiness. It is rightly said, “A stitch in time saves nine.” A punctual person completes his work in time. He faces no disturbance in life. He comes up to the expectations of people. A punctual person can become an ideal manager. So, punctuality is the virtue of successful people.

Punctuality is the virtue of kings. It is the habit of princes. It is appreciable that kings were punctual in ancient times. They also advised their subjects and soldiers to be punctual in life. Such kings were benevolent to their people. They worked hard for the welfare of their masses. Their kingdoms were safe because they were proactive. They always completed their work in time. As a result, people respected them from the core of their hearts while unpunctual kings did not get the love and loyalty of their people. Their rule lasted for shorter period.

Moreover, a punctual person is always a winner. He is always a step ahead of others. He executes his work promptly. He does not favor delay in work. He has ample time for the implementation of his plans and policies. His punctual nature helps him in getting rid of his mistakes well before time. His work shows perfection. In the end, he can get admiration and praise of his seniors.

Punctuality is a key to success for students. A punctual student is the star of histeacher’s eyes. He attends his classes regularly. He memorizes all lectures because henever remains out of his class. All students respect him. Parents are also satisfied with punctual children. They are ready to spend every single penny for the sake of their future, Punctuality also helps students in their future life.

Only punctual nations can become great nations. Punctual nations use theirpotential Such nations can build strong economy. They fulfil their responsibilities in time. On the other

hand, unpunctual nations cannot keep pace with the changing world. They lag because they waste their precious time. Such nations are declared third world nations. They have no respect in the world.

Benjamin Franklin has rightly remarked: “Early to bed, early to rise, makes a person healthy, wealthy and wise.” A punctual person is always in the condition of exercise. He works diligently right from the morning to evening. It keeps him healthy. He suffers from no disease. Timely completion of work pays him, and he becomes rich. His continuous working experience enhances his understanding of the world. As a result, he gains wisdom which is not common in the world.

Furthermore, punctuality is very important for staff in hospitals. A punctual doctor saves life of many patients. It is a great and noble cause. Unpunctuality in hospitals may produce deadly results. Many patients die when doctors do not respond immediately. Lazy doctors are always punished. They cannot become seasoned physicians. Hence, punctuality is not the virtue of bored. It is the virtue of saviors. Everyone wants to work with a punctual person. A punctual person is a blessing for others. Others are not forced to wait for his fault. He not only finishes his work timely but also facilitates others.

Likewise, punctuality is inevitable in business as well. A businessman should be punctual to run his business effectively. This world is too fast. People wait for none. Those businessmen survive who can keep up their appointments. Delay in work and meetings can cause serious damage to a business. It is generally observed that lazy people cannot become successful businessmen. Only regular and punctual businessman’s business flourishes rapidly.

 All the great men in the world were punctual in their life affairs. Punctuality was the hallmark of their personalities. They were proactive in their approach towards life. They realized the importance of punctuality and acted accordingly. Great leaders achieved their goals well before time. They revolutionized the lives of their followers due to punctuality. They won freedom for completing their task in time.

 In addition, punctuality is the only panacea for curtailing red-tapism. Delay in Official work costs people and states heavily. People visit public offices again and again.

Red-tapism tarnishes the image of a country. No country wants to invest in such a Country. Punctuality can put an end to unnecessary delay. It is the responsibility of leaders to ensure punctuality in public affairs to facilitate people.

 Nowadays, unpunctuality has become a fashion. People consider it a privilege to reachlate. Ministers and chief guests do not arrive in time. This habit is highly  Objectionable. It is a weakness of personality. It is discourteous to make others wait for  You. Such flaw should be done away with. It does not cast a good image on others.

Punctuality shows one’s sincerity and honesty towards work. Only a responsible person completes what he is assigned in the given time. Such people are ranked high in any organization. They are respected by their colleagues and bosses. An insincere person does not show seriousness in his work. As a result, his work remains incomplete. Such people may also lose their jobs for their lazy attitude.

Punctuality makes life disciplined. Discipline adds color to life. A disciplined person is active and enthusiastic. He enjoys the beauty of every event because of proper management of time. He also inculcates discipline in his children. His children excel in their respective fields which brings real happiness on his face. A disciplined person never cuts a sorry figure. He is always on the top for doing everything in time.

The founder of Pakistan was very regular and punctual in his life. He never left his work incomplete. He took timely steps for a separate homeland for the Muslims of subcontinent. Even his declining health could not keep him away from his mission. He reached everywhere well before given time. He always stressed hard work and punctuality. The Quaid punctually did his morning walk till his death.

On the other hand, unpunctuality and lack of seriousness always result in failure. Napoleon was a great warrior. He was an eminent general who won many wars. His enemies were afraid of him. He was defeated in the battle of Waterloo by English forces in 1815. It is said that Napoleon met his tragic end because one of his generals did not react in time. He had to face defeat because of his general’s unpunctuality.

 Nature is also punctual. The sun rises at a particular time every day with slight variation. Rain falls in a regular pattern every year. All the seasons punctually come every year. The flowers bloom in spring and earth wears green apparel during spring season. In this way, the moon and the stars appear at a particular time. Nature teaches us to be punctual because everything in nature appears at a particular time. Nature declares that punctuality is not the virtue of bored.

All in all, it can be said that punctuality is the virtue of intelligent and talentedones. It is a great source of excellence and success. Punctuality makes a person internally strong and confident to tackle technical issues. Progress in this modern world is only possible through punctuality. It is a habit which can be developed if one lacks it, itdemands effort, but it is possible. Someone has rightly said, “Practice makes a manperfect.” Punctuality saves a person from many difficulties. It makes life smooth. A punctual person faces no hurdle and reaches his destination with pride and honor. One  can say that punctuality is a power which adds to the importance of a person. It isthevirtue of intellectuals and trend-setters.




  • Knowledge is a Power which illuminates the whole world

Supporting Arguments

  • Knowledge is a distinction between man and animal
  • Men of knowledge have many advantages over uneducated people
  • Nations having knowledge are powerful economically and militarily
  • Knowledge leads to excellence
  • Medical knowledge has served humanity
  • Knowledge helps eradicate poverty
  • Knowledge made inventions possible
  • Indian subcontinent was ruled by the British based on knowledge
  • Muslims ruled the world when they were the torchbearers of knowledge
  • Knowledge has played a pivotal role in the growth and survival of mankind
  • This power has also several disadvantages
  • Sometimes, knowledge becomes a cause of worry



Knowledge is power because it gives awareness about a fact or a situation. Knowledge is a possession that can never be stolen or plundered. Ali (R.A) said, “Wealth is to be protected, whereas knowledge protects man.” It does not decrease while transferring to others. People having knowledge can capture power and influence. They have several advantages over people having no or less knowledge. An educated person behaves like a gentle man. Knowledge is the only difference between man and animals. It is knowledge that leads to the excellence of mind. It is responsible for all the invention and discoveries. Nations having knowledge are strong economically and militarily. Knowledge eradicates poverty. It has made life of people easier. The credit of man’s growth and survival goes to knowledge only. It is a real power if used to achieve positive ends. Knowledge has also caused heavy losses in term of men and material. Overall, knowledge is a light which illuminates the whole world.

First, knowledge is the only distinction between man and animals. It is the only difference between the two. Man without knowledge is like animals. Knowledge enables people to be civilized and cultured. It also makes them superior to beasts. Man becomes superior creation based on knowledge. Man cannot see as far as an eagle. He cannot run as fast as a tiger. His sense of smell is inferior to that of dogs. Man is unable to fight with lions with bare hands. He cannot carry heavy loads on his back as some beast of burden do. Although he has no match in strength with elephants, yet he managed to become the most powerful creature on the earth. It is not physical power but power of knowledge that makes man superior to animals. Owing to his knowledge, he forces them to be his servants. It can never be done without knowledge.

Moreover, men of knowledge have many advantages over uneducated ones. They are even the bosses of semi-educated. People having knowledge are the officers while others are laborers. They also have more respect than the illiterate. Knowledgeable ones are the rulers and masters. Largely, they govern the public. Their financial condition is also better than people having no or less knowledge. They have power and authority as well. The learned ones lead a comfortable life. They have the art of enjoying nature. So, in many walks of life, the literate has many advantages over illiterate ones.

Furthermore, it is also true for nations. Nations having knowledge are powerful economically and militarily. There are many instances to prove it. Take the examples of America and China. Both the countries promoted education. They imparted knowledge to their citizens. Now, China is the second largest economy of the world. on the other hand, America is also a superpower. Both the countries are very strong in their fields. It was only knowledge that enabled them to be strong and powerful.

similarly, knowledge leads to excellence. It enables people to give sound judgments. It enhances their level of understanding. It also adds to their patience and tolerance. Knowledge provides man with the capacity to manage affairs of life in a proper way. It is knowledge which guides people to distinguish between right and wrong. Knowledge helps people in doing away with less important things. Resultantly, they use their brain more which leads to scientific inventions. Knowledge gives man a direction and working in that direction results in mental excellence.

Likewise, medical knowledge has served humanity a lot. Knowledge has brought a revolution in medical field. It is a blessing of knowledge that several deadly diseases are curable nowadays. Knowledge and practice of surgery have saved many precious lives. Now, even cancer can be operated successfully. Antibiotics are also here to lessen the pains of mankind. Deaths during childbirth have been controlled to a large extent. The world has nearly been immunized against polio virus. Open heart surgery is possible with the help of medical science. It is knowledge which helps people in getting rid of their pains. In this way, it becomes a universal truth that knowledge is power. It has power to provide comfort to mankind.

In addition to this, knowledge helps eradicate poverty. It has the power to drive people towards economic prosperity. People having knowledge are aware of earning techniques. They can easily meet their both ends. They also know the fruits of hard work. They do not adopt illegal means for earning money as well. They can choose best Profession for themselves. It can be testified with the fact that most of the poor are illiterate. knowledge also plays its role as an earning tool. It has the power of uplifting its possessor financially. So, in economic field, knowledge is power as well. It is a key to economic prosperity.

In a similar fashion, knowledge shows its power in inventions. It made inventions possible. Knowledge turned ordinary people into famous scientists. It was knowledge that encouraged them to move forward. Their knowledge paved their way to become scientific inventors. They used their knowledge in a positive manner which resulted in success.

Inventions like telephone, computer, internet, laser, radio, etc. could not have been possible if the element of knowledge was lacking. It acted as prerequisite to inventions. Now, power of knowledge has enabled us to travel across the globe within a few hours. We can talk to our near and dear ones abroad. Only knowledge made it possible. Its power cannot be denied.

Here is an example to prove the power of knowledge. The Indian subcontinent was ruled by the British for many years. It had happened just because of knowledge. They had it and utilized it well. Knowledge added to their shrewdness, and they captured the area. They had made inventions and were advanced technologically. It helped them a lot to prolong their rule. Freedom movement had failed because local people were far behind in knowledge and education. They would have got liberty at that time it if they had knowledge. Lack of knowledge made them slaves. So, knowledge has the power to rule.

Same was the case with Muslims. They ruled the world when they were the torch bearers of knowledge. They got name and fame in several fields of science and literature. Muslims invented many things when they were in touch with education and knowledge. They stood in the row of masters of the world at that time. The situation changed when they changed their priorities. Indifference toward education and knowledge caused their downfall. They were in power until they loved knowledge.

Finally, knowledge has played a pivotal role in the growth and survival of mankind. At the dawn of civilization, man was at the mercy of nature. He was compelled to live like a nomad. Knowledge made his survival easy and possible. He invented fire and wheel. Then human beings started living together. Nowadays, survival is possible even in the coldest and the hottest regions of the world because man has made articles to fight natural calamities. It is the miracle of knowledge. Same is the case with growth in different fields of life. Take the example of agriculture; per acre yield has multiplied. Hybridization is also on the rise. All this became possible with the help of knowledge. It has the power to do so.

On the other hand, knowledge has many disadvantages. It happens when it is used negatively. America’s bombardment on Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused a great havoc. People died in a very large number due to atomic bombs which are the creation of scientific knowledge. In addition to this, man’s knowledge has also come into conflict with nature, Ozone layer is affected due to rapid industrialization. Natural resources are depleting day by day. But it depends on man whether he uses knowledge positively or negatively.

To conclude, it can be confidently asserted that knowledge is power. Knowledge ensures successful life. It has brought many pleasures to mankind. It is power only if it is used in the right direction. If knowledge creates articles of destruction, it is curse not power. On the contrary, if it opens the gates of happiness for mankind, it is knowledge in fact. It can be rightly called power. It must be acquired, preserved, and passed on to next generations. There is no end to love of knowledge. Only a foolish think that he knows everything. Real power comes to nations through knowledge. It is wisely stated that knowledge is power. Let us acquire that power to raise the image of our dear homeland in the world. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said, “Seek knowledge though you may have to travel to China.                                                                  




  • City life is better than country life due to many reasons

    Supporting Arguments
  • City life offers better health facilities than that of village
  • Most of the prominent educational institutions are in cities
  • There are more job opportunities in cities as compared to villages
  • Important government offices have their headquarters in cities
  • Roads and infrastructure are envious in cities
  • Cities have picnic spots and parks for enjoyment
  • People of cities are mentally sharper than villagers
  • Modem means of communication and transportation are only available in cities
  • Cities are more populated than villages
  • Cities are the hub of political activities
  • Book fairs are held in cities     
  • Many people migrate from villages to cities
  • Industrialists establish industries in cities
  • Cities are trend-setters of fashion
  • Cities promote cultural activities
  • Cities have better sewerage system than that of villages
  • Cities are ahead of villages in sports activities
  • Newspapers and journals are also published from / in cities
  • There are some positives of village life as well



City life is better than country life due to many reasons, City life is more Colorful as compared to village life. City life offers lot of facilities to its inhabitants. People of cities remain busy in their work. That’s why, there are; less among them. On the other hand, village life is limited. It is not vast. People intrude in one another’s affairs, Life of city favor freedom of thought and expression, while life of village is conservative and restricted. It does not promote personal liberty. Women work side by side with men in cities. Many a woman is economically independent in cities. They can spend what they earn. Women in villages are not economically independent despite working in fields with their mem City life is diverse. It changes with every passing day, On the contrary, village life is static, and it does not change rapidly.

City life has better health facilities than that of village. Cities have many hospitals; these hospitals have modem medical equipment to treat different patients. Doctors prefer to serve in cities. Owing to this, people get services of efficient and well-trained doctors. City hospitals provide neat and clean environment to patients. Villagers lack good health facilities. They come to cities for better health care.

Moreover, most of the prominent educational institutions are in cities.

These institutes include schools, colleges, medical colleges and engineering universities, People of cities send their children to these educational institutions, Children sharpen their analytical skills in their respective schools, colleges, and universities. They also learn leadership and managerial principles to play their role in the betterment of their homeland. Literacy rate is high in cities. Normally, villages have few schools. These schools lack infrastructure. Teachers are not properly trained. Students do not get what they deserve. The student who can afford, come to cities for better education.

There are more job opportunities in cities than villages. The offices of multinationalcompanies are situated in cities. People of city work in these companies. They gethandsome salaries and upgrade their standard of living. Moreover, headquarters of banks and other organizations are also present in cities. Such offices generate jobs for city dwellers. People of villages mostly depend on agriculture Some of them come to cities in search of jobs.

Similarly, important government offices have their headquarters in cities. Head of

these government institutions sit in these headquarters. They take decisions and formulate important policies. People of cities come to about such policy making first. citizens have easy access to government offices for their different work. They can get their domiciles and licenses easily. The situation is reverse in villages. They must face a lot of difficulties to get small but important documents. They cover long distances for work in any department.

Roads and infrastructure are envious in cities. Roads are carpeted. These roads are  wide and clean. People can move from one place to another place easily due to well paved roads. Similarly, bus terminals and railway stations are in good shape in cities. people can visit different cities in no time. Condition of roads in villages is usually pathetic. Buildings of government departments portray a gloomy picture. People of villages face lot of problems due to poor roads and infrastructure.

 Likewise, someone has rightly said, “Variety is the spice of life.” It is man that he wants change. Man works day and night to fulfil his needs. He requires enjoyment and freshness in his life. This enjoyment is provided only by city life. Cities have many parks, where people come to get rid of boredom of their routine life. There are many picnic spots in cities. These picnic spots are a source of pleasure for the people of city. They visit such spots with their families and get happiness.

People of cities are mentally sharper than villagers. Villagers usually live in a stereotype environment. They are idealistic because of less in villages. They are not fond of multitasking. People of city come across different people every day. They are more social. Their social contacts add to their mental and intellectual excellence. They learn the art of diplomacy from their fellow beings. It makes their temperaments stronger. They tackle different situations in their lives rationally.

Furthermore, modern means of communication and transportation are only available in cities. Buses are new and spacious in cities. These buses are air-conditioned which make’ travelling easy. This world has become a global village. Television network, the internet and cell phones have become necessary to live an updated life. These means of Communication are present in all cities but in few villages. People of cities contact their near and dear ones through internet and cell phone. In this way, they overcome distances among them.

Cities are usually more populated than villages. Huge population of cities has Beater needs than villagers. This situation promotes business activities. People start  different businesses and earn money to lead a contended life. Likewise, places of

entertainment like cinemas and theatres are in cities. People go to these places to  entertain themselves. It also brings profits to owners of such places.

 Besides, cities are the hub of political activities. Every political pa-ty tries to win the support of citizens. It is not easy to persuade people of city to vote for a political party. So, leaders launch development projects in cities. Metro bus projects in Lahore, Rawalpindi and Multan are glaring examples in this regard. People of village are convinced easily to vote for a party. Furthermore, there is feudalism. Feudalist’s force villagers to vote for them. They do not start development work in villages. Hence. villages remain backward.

Francis Bacon rightly said, “Knowledge is power.” Knowledge makes man a real human being. Publishers and book sellers hold book fairs in cities. They offer huge variety of books to the people of city. People buy books of their taste. They enjoy the pleasures of reading. Book reading adds to their knowledge and analytical skills. People of villages only get such opportunities when they visit cities.

In addition, 21st century is witnessing rapid urbanization. Millions of people have migrated from villages to cities. The urban planners must work hard to accommodate such a huge population in cities. People of village have come to live in cities because of better standard of living in city life. They are considering city life promising for their young generation. In short, this rapid urbanization proves that city life is better than country life.

Industrialists prefer cities while establishing their industries. Industrial sector is the

backbone of a county’s economy. Industrialization results in progress of cities. Industries offer jobs to thousands of people. People from villages come to cities to work in these industries. They earn their livelihood in cities. Many engineers and technical workers of cities also work in industrial sector. Such economic activities boost up economic growth,

In the same way, cities are the torchbearers of fashion. Every new fashion starts from cities. Most of the fashion desiB1ers belong to cities. They create new designs according to the changing trends of society. They win the hearts of people through their impressive designs. People of city are trend-setters of fashion. Villagers follow the trend of citizens.

Many cultural festivals are also held in cities. These cultural activities add to thebeauty of city life. Similarly, people also come to know about culture of different regions. Spring festival which is held in Lahore can be quoted in this regard. When foreigners visit such cultural festivals, they also enjoy it. Cultural events promote culture of a county among its youth as well.

There is well-planned sewerage system in cities as well. It makes city life clean.

water is passed into rivers through a chain of underground water channels. People face no difficulty in rainy season. City streets are free of garbage because of proper maintenance. But sewerage system in villages is outdated. Villagers face lot of faculties in rainy season. Streets are filled with rainwater which results in many diseases.

 Adding more to it, cities are ahead of villages in sports activities. National and international sports events are held in cities. People are attracted towards such events. These events promote healthy activities among people. Sports also bring different nations closer. Sports festivals are also held to portray a positive image of a country. These festivals also get attention of youth. Punjab government held a sports festival which was welcomed by youth.

Newspapers and journals are a great source of information and knowledge. Offices of newspapers are present in cities. Newspapers are published in cities. People of city have easy access to these newspapers. People of villages must get newspaper from cities. Circulation is low in villages. That’s why, people of villages are not well informed of the day-to-day affairs of the country.

Village life also has some positives. People of village are simple. They are not materialistic. They are sincere in their relations. Milk and vegetables are pure in villages. People hardly deceive one another. They help one another in difficult time. Villagers respect relations. Despite having some positives, village life has fewer merits than city life. City life is preferable in most of the cases.

To sum. Up, one can say that both city life and country life have some negatives and Positives. Overall, city life is better than country life. City life is full of lively energies. It has all the basic facilities of life. People of city enjoy high standard of living. They are more active in adventures and entertainment. It is apt to say that county life has its beauty, but city life is better than it.




  • History is evident of the fact that man comes from pains to greater pains
  • Supporting Arguments
  • Man, invented machines but he must take care of them
  • Man int’0duced nuclear technology for progress but it proved counter-productive
  • He achieved a luxurious way of living, but these luxuries need protection
  • Industrialization resulted in pollution
  • Cell phone has widened the gap among people
  • Man has gone away from nature due to his worldly desires
  • Man sacrifices a lot to achieve power
  • He eats a lot but there is no contentment in his life                                                               
  • He invented arms for his protection which proved fatal for him
  • Man controlled many fatal diseases, but he is still facing new challenges                                                           
  • Man’s use of pesticides becomes deadly
  • Man’s pains increase even after marriage
  • Men exploited resources for their battement which resulted in scarcity of resources



History of man is replete with continuous struggle. Man has been trying to improve his standard of living since his birth. His restless nature has always inspired him to know more about the world around him. Man has taken all the pains to make his life easier. He has discovered and invented a lot of things, but his pains and difficulties have increased with the passage of time. He must take lot of pains to protect his inventions. Men had less money in ancient times but their life was peaceful. People loved and respected one another. Even wars were fought on some principles. Nowadays, life has become fast, but disappointment and depression have gone out of control. Men invented printing press to publish newspapers after a lot of efforts. Newspapers were expected to disseminate information and impart knowledge. Some newspapers protect vested interests of groups. These newspapers spread rumors and propaganda. Journalists intrude into personal matters of people. Sometimes, even state secrets are disclosed. Advertisement also exploits poor masses. So, man has come from pains to greater pains.

Men invented machines with the help of science. They wanted to speed up the pace of production. Men wanted to reduce human labor as well. These machines added to hardships of men. Many manually skilled workers became jobless. Machines replaced human labor but demanded human attention. These machines cannot operate without human assistance. They also require repair, lubrication and human care, many workers have lost their parts of body while working with machines. Some of them have died also.

Besides, men introduced nuclear technology for defense and energy purposes. Men took pains to develop nuclear bomb. This very technology has become a nuisance.

Millions of people lost their lives in American nuclear attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Besides, these weapons require lot of effort for their protection. Currently, nine Countries are nuclear powers in the world. The bombs which they possess can destroy this whole world any time.

Similarly, men are greedy by nature, they want to accumulate as much wealth as they can. There are many rich persons in this world. They spend huge sum of money to

Protect their assets. Ali (R.A) rightly said, “Wealth is to be protected, whereas knowledge protects man.” Many people are kidnapped and killed due to their wealth.

Similarly, wealth is concentrated in few hands and rest of humanity is suffering for its survival.

Men established industries to make progress by leaps and bounds. Industrialization generated millions of jobs. It resulted in rapid urbanization. On the other hand, industrialization also polluted the atmosphere. Smoke has played havoc with ozone layer. Ozone layer protects us from harmful rays of the sun. Unfortunately, it is depleting day after day which is alarming. Hence, men have come from pains to greater pains.

Likewise, men worked with passion and sincerity to reduce distances. Cell phone was the result of such efforts. There is no doubt that cell phone is an advantageous device. It has helped us in our lives. On the Other hand, it has its negative impacts as well. Youth uses cell phone excessively. A young one attends a call While Sitting in a group. Cell phone connects him with a person sitting thousands of miles away. At the same time, it takes him away from those who are closer to him. Cell phone has also disturbed the  family system. Everyone uses Facebook and Twitter excessively. Children have no time for parents, and parents are also busy. So, this gap is widening.

This world has no more been an easier place to survive. Men take pains to earn a handsome living. Everyone wants to live a luxurious life. People are running behind. He money. Every person wants to become rich overnight. In this way, men are going away from nature day after day. They do not have time for leisure making. They are spending a life of hurry and worry. They are feeding their bodies not their souls. Natural beauty is food for soul. The connection between soul and body is lost. As a result, they are not contented and happy despite having all luxuries of life.

Moreover, men always try to get higher place in life. They face hardships in  fulfilling their desires. They want to become powerful. Someone has rightly said, “With great power comes great responsibility.” A politician works day and night to become prime minister. He must come up to the expectations of people which demand  continuous work.

Men established factories to produce arms for law-and-order purposes. New arms are brought into market after untiring research. These arms are available to everyone. Some people purchase arms for their protection. Others may have hobbies of arm collection. There are criminals also who use these weapons to get their nefarious designs’ They kill and injure people for some coins. Thus, same arms which are produced for protection become a threat to human life. So, men come from pains to greater pains.

Furthermore, men have great achievements in the field of medicine. They succeeded in curing many fatal diseases. They also controlled infant mortality rate. Such advancement was the result of their dedication towards this cause. Nowadays, population of the world is increasing rapidly. Some countries have rationalized their birth rate. unfortunately, countries like Pakistan have failed to control overpopulation. It has further burdened the already scarce resources. The result is more suffering for men.

Men use pesticides and fertilizers to increase the yield of their crops. They pay heavy amount of money to buy these chemicals. They take pains to earn this money. pesticides do increase their crop production. Sometimes, these pesticides and fertilizers are carried away with the rainwater. This poisonous rainwater becomes a part of streams and rivers. Human beings face deadly diseases when they drink polluted water.

In addition, man makes his own fate. He struggles throughout his life to achieve an envious career. Man marries a girl of his choice. As a result, he has more family members to be supported. He takes more pains to provide them better facilities of life. He sacrifices his desires for the future of his offspring. Hence, it can be said that men come from pains to greater pains.

Science and technology have played an important role in human life. Men have used technology to exploit natural resources. They used these resources to upgrade their living standard. Lot of mental and physical exercise was required to search and tap these resources. Some countries have almost exhausted their all resources. Now, they are struggling due to scarcity of resources. So, men come from pains to greater pains.

 All in all, one can say that men faced many difficulties to live a better life on this planet. They succeeded in many of their plans. They reformed their lives to a great extent, Men brought themselves from darkness to light. This modem life of 21st century is the result of their struggle. They have done a lot to reduce their pains, but their difficulties are not over yet. History has witnessed that men have always come from pains to greater pains.




  • There is no denying the fact that man is born free but everywhere he is in chains
  • Supporting Arguments
  • Man is dependent upon others for his survival in the world
  • Parents and teachers dictate man in life
  • There is a shackle of religion which restricts individual’s liberty
  • Laws are also there to limit his freedom
  • Man is chained in social norms and values
  • Poverty encircles man to live under certain restrictions
  • Racial consciousness enchains man to become a stereotype
  • Patriotism does not allow him to even think of loving another country
  • Man must follow outdated custom and traditions in life
  • Feudal and tribal chieftains suppress people of their area
  • To some extent, chains are necessary to maintain balance in life



Indeed, man is born free but everywhere he is in chains. It is true in several spheres of life. Many a walk of life proves it. It starts with the birth of man. A baby is totally dependent on others especially mother. The chains start working when parents give him toilet training, Then, parents and teachers dictate him about what to do and what not to do. A man is badly shackled in the chains of religion. Religion always stands in the way of his freedom. Social norms also contribute to enslave man. Same is the case with rules and laws. Poverty also plays its role jn restricting man’s freedom. Next come tribalism and patriotism. Racial consciousness is doing the same to man as well. On the contrary, it appears untrue. Modem age has changed this concept to a large extent. Now, everyone is supposed to enjoy freedom. Some certain chains are essential. These chains play a pivotal role in developing an ideal society.

Man as a baby is dependent on parents and siblings. He is not independent. He must be dependent on them to fulfil his every need. He cannot eat or drink himself. He is unable to change his clothes. He cannot even speak to express his desires and demands. Parents speculate that perhaps; he needs this or that thing. The chain of dependence is the first chain for babies. It starts with the verv birth of man and continues till his death.

Furthermore, man is not born as a slave, but he is caught in the chains of dictation. These are his parents, teachers as well as elders who dictate him. They make him follow them in the name of learning and shaping personality. Sigmund Freud, a well-known psychologist, indicates that parents want their children to go to latrine for pee every time. It is done to make them learn the manners. Children enjoy peeing themselves out of the washroom. Resultantly, it appears shackles for them. They find themselves chained.

Likewise, religion is the biggest chain for man. It always stands in the way of man’s freedom. It is so because religion gives a complete code of life to its followers. On many occasions, man wants to do something according to his will and desires. He feels difficulty or fails in the accomplishment of his yearning. The reason is religion. Religion plays its role as an impediment in the fulfilment of his desires.

Next come laws, the laws are legalized form of chains for man. They do not allow man to enjoy freedom. For a case in point, Paris is the most beautiful place for a Pakistani and he wants to visit the place. He will be barred from entering France in the absence of Passport and visa. Obviously, it is a chain for that man. Driving is an avocation for someone. If someone wants to drive a car, he cannot do so if he has no driving license with him. Same is the case with identity cards. Man is not allowed to enter certain buildings and offices without identity card. The laws hamper his individual freedom. He was born free, but the chains of laws enslaved him.

In a similar fashion, man is chained in social norms. He is not supposed to Violate norms. He is not expected to even criticize principles of a society. He must abide by social laws in every condition. For instance, a man wants to have music and dance party. Party is organized and is about to begin. At the same time, a neighbor loses something. It is also a death blow to that party. Now, the party cannot be enjoyed. Same is the case with many other personal desires. Even a man must dress up according to the norms of a society. He must face strong criticism on wearing pants in a rural area. These are social obstacles for man.

In addition to this, poverty curtails man’s freedom. It hinders the happiness of an individual. A poor man cannot enjoy life as a rich man does. A poor must work hard to make his both ends meet. Despite his desire to go for hoteling, he cannot do so. He wants that his children should get education from well-known institutions. He wishes treatment of his family by foreign qualified doctors. He has list of desires, but he is unable to fulfil them. Every time, his destitution becomes an obstacle and stands in the way of his likes and dislikes.

Apart from it, man is enslaved by racial consciousness. Man must give up before racial discrimination. Races have divided people into groups. Racial differences have become a chain for people in many ways. Marriages -are a best example in this regard. If someone likes and desires to marry a girl ot’ another race, it is not a secret that it will not be done. Racial differences keep him away from marrying the girl of his own choice. He was born free and had no chains, but racial consciousness has changed the situation. This is also a hindrance in man’s freedom.

Similarly, patriotism limits man’s freedom. Man is trapped in the chains of nationalism. He is not allowed to take any action which goes against the repute of his country. Image of the country is built by its dwellers. So, man must keep in mind the reputation of his country while taking any step. He must compromise on his wants. He along with his hopes is the slave of patriotism.

In the same way, man must follow obsolete custom and traditions. Sometimes these chains go cruel against man. It can be testified with the help of instances within Pakistan. There are several examples in this regard. ‘Karo-Kari’ is a form of honor killing. A girl in sexual relation with someone is supposed to be killed. It is a fashion in rural and tribal areas of Pakistan. Sometimes, man as a brother or father wants to forgive the accused woman. He is too weak to implement his desire. The trend of honor killing is the reason. He wants to back out but the chains of custom and traditions do not allow him to do so.

Finally, feudal, and tribal chief are the ‘human chains’ for man. They do not allow him to live freely. Man is not able to go against them. He cannot stand against them because he is dependent on them. If he offends them, his socio-economic survival will be in danger. He is unable to earn his livelihood he has unpleasant relations with his tribal chieftains. So, man is in shackles Everywhere.

On the other hand, to some extent, it appears untrue. It looks that the concept is falsified. Modem age has changed the situation. Freedom of speech is the best example in

this regard. Nowadays, it has no limitations. Everyone is allowed to express his feelings and thoughts. It can be done publicly. No one is stopped from doing so.

Industrialization has given a rise to many job opportunities. It is doing a lot in terms of breaking the chains of poverty. Non-governmental organizations are playing their role in eradicating cruel custom and traditions. Human rights are given preference. So, women are no more submissive, they are empowered now. Same is the case with other chains. They are weakening day by day but have not been wiped out completely.

To conclude, it can be confidently asserted that man is born free, but he is in chains. It is true to a large extent. Chains are several in numbers. Man is enslaved by all these shackles. His freedom is rare. He is supposed to follow the rules and regulations of his country. Same is the case with custom, traditions, and social norms. All are there to restrict man’s freedom. Sometimes, it seems fabricated. Globalized world has changed the condition. International organizations are doing much to liberate man from all the chains. On the other hand, if these chains still exist, these are essential. These are helpful in establishing an ideal society. Man should be bound to follow certain rules to maintain harmony and peace in the world.




  • United Nations was created to maintain peace and security in the world but it  has failed to achieve this objective in many cases.


  • Undemocratic structure of United Nations
  • Lack of Funds
  • United Nations’ inability to solve complex international disputes
  • Emergence of regional organizations
  • Weak role of International Court of Justice
  • United Nations has not changed according to the changing trends in world


  • The use of undemocratic veto power has destroyed the concept of equality among the nations but is has succeeded in avoiding WWIII
  • Fund providing nations influence the decisions of United Nations
  • Countries have started to look toward alternatives of United Nations
  • Passive role of International Court of Justice has given free hand to the states
  • The office of the secretary-general of the United Nations has become a mere puppet in the hands of western countries
  • Role of the General Assembly is over shadowed by the Security Council


  • Veto power can be abolished or curtailed by giving more powerful role to the General Assembly
  • The solution of complicated international disputes needs reformation of I-JN
  • Every member can give one percent of GDP as a financial assistance to United Nations
  • Preference can be given to UN over regional organizations a The United Nations can change as per changing trends of the world a More emphasis may now be laid on various agencies of the United Nations



United Nations was created to maintain peace and security in the world, but it has failed to achieve this objective in many cases. However, it has been successful in some cases. Its objective was to promote friendly relations based on equal rights among different countries of the world, it was established to enhance international cooperation for solving political, economic, and social problems of suffering humanity. Unfortunately, United Nations has been unsuccessful in the accomplishment of above-mentioned goals. Although it succeeded in bringing an end to the world wars, yet it failed to avoid wars  among different countries. United Nations aimed to become a center for resolving international disputes but disputes like Kashmir and Palestine put a question mark on its efficiency. Things have radically changed after the formation of United Nations. The world has undergone many changes in this period. The United Nations must change according to the modem friends of the world if it wants to bring complete harmony and prosperity in the world.

As every problem has some causes the structural flaw in the United Nations charter is the major cause of its failure. The role of the Security Council is undemocratic. The United Nations has not reformed its charter which is unable to play its due role in the world. Main power is vested in five permanent members of the Security Council. It is rightly said, “Authority corrupts and absolute authority corrupts absolutely.” This absolute veto power is outdated and not according to the real structure of United Nations.

Similarly, lack of funds has also hindered United Nations’ way to progress. It must get needed funds from resourceful countries at the cost of its freedom of decision making. Its financial dependence forces it to lose its impartiality. This financial dependence is affecting its working credibility.

Moreover, United Nations inability to solve complex international issues has added fuel to fire. It has not been able to give even a proper definition of terrorism which is burning question of the day. It has also failed to tackle key issues like Kashmir. Kashmir has been the cause of war for many times between Pakistan and India. The people of Kashmir are waiting for fruitful role of United Nations in putting an end to their miseries,In fact, United Nation has not reformed itself to tackle the complicated international

Likewise, emergence of regional organizations has also resulted in United Nations failure. Some Countries felt that United Nations was unable to come up to their expectations. They decided to create some regional organizations to achieve their social, political, and economic goals. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Organization of Economic Cooperation are the result of such thinking.

The restricted role Of the International Court of justice is also responsible for the fiasco of United Nations. Powerful countries snatch the rights of poor countries, but the International Court of Justice is unable to provide justice to these suffering countries. It depends upon the rich countries whether to accept its jurisdiction or not because its jurisdiction is not mandatory at all.

The United Nations has not changed according to time, but the world has undergone many changes. Many countries have become nuclear powers and the role of the Security Council and its veto powers have become irrelevant. The United Nations has not reformed itself according to the new needs of the world. This lack of reformation has caused its downfall.

The undemocratic veto power has destroyed the concept of equality among the member countries of United Nations. Five countries have unchecked and unbridled veto power in their hands. Any veto power can reject the resolution passed by all other member states. Such power is not according to the essence of democracy. Veto powers can protect the violator against the aggrieved. The United States has used this power to protect Israel; a country which has violated international law and killed thousands of innocent Palestinians. In short, undemocratic veto power has put an end to the concept of equality among nations.

 As every problem has some effects, fund providing countries have influenced the decision making of the United Nations. UN heavily depends on resourceful countries for financial assistance. These countries provide funds to achieve their own ends. This financial dependence has made United Nations a slave of powerful nations. In this way, it cannot make independent decisions and loses its impartiality.

Apart from it, United Nations failure to solve complex international disputes has forced several countries to look towards its alternatives. Some countries suspect its ability to deal with complicated issues like Kashmir and Palestine. These countries believe that they can themselves solve their problems. The emergence of regional organizations like SAARC, ASEAN and SCO is the result of United Nations failure to get rid of some international disputes.

 Besides, non-mandatory jurisdiction of International Court of Justice has resulted i the decline of United Nations. It has served as a nominal body only. It is upon the will of conflicting countries whether they accept or reject its jurisdiction. The International Court of Justice cannot take any action against those states which do not accept its jurisdiction

On the same pattern, the office of the secretary general of United Nations is merely a puppet in the hands of western countries. The selection of the secretary general is not always on merit. He is not free in his decision making. He often must work according to the dictation of big powers like the United States. Such a secretary-general cannot play his due role in the world peace.

In the same way, the role of the General Assembly is overshadowed by the Security Council. It is irony of situation that the Security Council which comprises only IS members dominates the 193-member General Assembly. General Assembly is often called the world parliament but only one veto power can reject its resolution. This system is completely against the norms of democracy.

The main remedy to save the sinking ship of United Nations is to curtail or abolish the undemocratic veto power of the Security Council. The General Assembly can be given more powers. All the countries can be given right to vote in General Assembly and the resolutions passed by it should be final. The Security Council should have no power to counter the resolutions passed by General Assembly. This Process will not only create equality among member states but also tum United Nations’ failure into success.

Secondly, the solution of longstanding international disputes can boost up United Nations current position. United Nations can urge the countries to solve their disputes according to its resolutions. It can also play the role of a mediator between conflicting countries. If United Nations succeeds in resolving issues like Kashmir, Palestine, and Syria, it will enhance its prestige and honor.

Thirdly, every country can give one percent of her GDP to United Nations as financial assistance. Such assistance will make its decision making free from any kind of influence. In this way, United Nations decision making can become impartial, and a sense of equality will prevail among the member states, such a financial system can save UN from decline.

Fourthly, the member states can be persuaded to prefer United Nations over Other regional organizations. These countries can be taken into confidence that United Nations can sincerely solve their problems. It can work for their betterment. It can bring peace and prosperity in the world. United Nations can get the lost confidence of some member states by taking concrete steps for the welfare of humanity,

Fifthly, United Nations organization should change according to the changes in the world. It should get rid of veto power. Every country has become powerful, and the concept of veto power is not going to work anymore. It can curtail the role of the Security council, or it can give the membership of the Security Council to more countries. It should give role to its other agencies like UNESCO and UNHCR. These UN agencies can play a pivotal role for the betterment of human beings. Efficient working of these agencies can bring peace and harmony in the world. Such positive and constructive role of agencies of the UN can save it from proceeding on the path of third world war.

To conclude, it can be said that’ the United Nations has not achieved its main objectives. Its main objective was to bring happiness, peace, harmony, and prosperity in the world, but it has been unsuccessful in the attainment of this objective. It ended the world wars but could not put an end •to small wars and conflicts between different countries. Some people are of the view that it has adopted the path of world war Ill. There are some serious faults in its charter which need reformation. It has not changed according to the requirements of this global world. UN should take some concrete steps to save itself from decline. If it does not take steps for its improvement, there will be no use of crying over the spilt milk.



  • It is hue that Pakistan has failed to eradicate polio


  • Less interest of governments in eradicating polio
  • Misinterpretation of religion
  • Illiteracy
  • Less investigative role of media
  • Weak judicial system
  • Poor security to polio vaccinators
  • Rumors and conservative mindset


  • Bad global image
  • Weak generations
  • Economic loss           
  • Beggary
  • Restrictions on Pakistani travelers
  • Segmentation among masses  

Remedial Measures                                                         

  • Seriousness of government to address the issue
  •  Correct interpretation of religion
  • Public awareness campaigns
  • Effective disease control
  • Crackdown against rebels
  • Security to polio workers
  • Incentives and penalties for parents



 It is true that Pakistan has failed to eradicate polio. It was an international issue a few decades back. Now the world is polio free except three countries including Pakistan the leaders of the country have passive approach towards the eradication of polio. polio virus is not completely eradicated from Pakistan. Previous governments tried their level best to get rid of this menace but failed due to certain reasons. The steps of last government were not enough to root out polio from Pakistan, it is affecting the country in several ways. Children are the major prey of this virus. It is adding to the hardships of parents. The solution to this problem is immediately needed. The issue deserves much attention. The upcoming generations can be protected from this deadly disease with the help of seriousness and strong political will. Some concrete steps are needed to be taken in this regard. The situation can be more appalling if the problem is not paid due heed. Then, there will be no use of crying over spilt milk.

As every problem has some causes, non-serious attitude of government towards  this issue is the prime reason that polio is still prevalent in the country. It appears that government is not willing to get rid of polio from the country. Passive approach of the government in this regard testifies it. Nothing concrete was done to make Pakistan polio free. The condition is not different at present as well. Government prefers tangible developments. It takes interest in building flyovers and underpasses. Polio eradication has never been the priority of any government.

Secondly, misinterpretation of religion is also one of the biggest hurdles in the way of polio control, Islam is widely misinterpreted. Many mullahs misguide people, they ask their followers not to get their children vaccinated against polio, they are of the view that polio drops contain material which destroys fertility, they consider this vaccination un-Islamic. Resultantly, blind followers of these conservative mullahs refuse to immunize their children, it results in spread of diseases.

Thirdly, illiteracy is also adding fuel to fire. Pakistan has a very low literacy rate People are less educated. They lack awareness about inoculation, they do not even immunize their children against minor diseases. Lack of awareness among parents in this regard is planning, Vaccination of children against polio virus is not considered necessary by illiterate parents. Ultimately, illiteracy stands in the way of polio eradication.

Fourthly, less investigative role of media is also making the situation worse. Journalists are not playing their due role pertaining to this issue. They have badly neglected the problem. Pointing out polio cases in electronic as well as print media is rare. All the channels and newspapers are running behind their material benefits. The culture of ratings is in full swing in the country. Awareness campaiY1s about polio are also rare in Pakistan. Failure of media to educate people leads to the failure of Pakistan in eradicating polio.

Fifthly, weak judicial system of the country is fanning the fire of polio as well. polio workers are killed but their killers are not brought to justice. Our judicial system is too fragile to bring them behind the bars. Taking Suo moto actions is a fashion in Pakistan. No Suo moto is taken against rebels who are not in favor of polio vaccination. In fact, they have no fear of punishment. This kind of attitude is causing failure of the country in curbing polio.

Sixthly, lack of security to the polio vaccinators is further aggravating the situation. They are not safe. Law and order situation in the country is not up to the mark. Terrorism  and target killing are increasing day by day. Extremists kill the polio workers considering them the agent of west and NGOs. Owing to this threat to their lives, people feel fear to work as polio vaccinators. They believe that they will be shot dead if they vaccinate children. Consequently, the number of polio workers has reduced due to poor law and order situation. It adds to the failure of Pakistan to eradicate polio.

Seventhly and lastly, rumors and conservative mind-set are here to contribute to failure of the country to extirpate polio. There is a rumor in the air that polio drops contain such material which reduces fertility. It is believed that the vaccination affects sexual power of men. People find conspiracy in the drops. Conservative mind-set Promotes these rumors. Many people easily believe such kind of conspiracy theories. These two elements have also played their role in keeping Pakistan away from eradicating polio.

As every problem has some effects, the worst effect of this problem is bad image of the country at global level. It has badly tarnished the reputation of Pakistan. Pakistan is considered the most dangerous place in the world. All the Pakistanis as well as Muslims are seen with suspicion. It has challenged the writ of state. The politicians of Pakistan fail to improve their image by solving various issues lack efficiency issues the country is faced with. In general, the world is of the view that Pakistan lack efficiency to tackle polio.

Similarly, failure in eradication of polio is resulting in weak generation. Several children fall a prey to this deadly disease. Many children are physically disabled. The virus has engulfed their somatic capabilities. Several children are crippled in their early childhood. They are totally dependent upon their members of family. They are unable to do their work themselves. This situation is a hurdle in the way of Pakistan’s progress because no country can move forward if it has such kind of weak generation.

Likewise, the problem is resulting in economic loss. Economy of the country has received a severe setback. Pakistani government must spend a lot to compensate the families of dead polio workers. A considerable amount of money is also spent on treatment of polio-affected children. The number of special children is increasing day by day. They need special care which is also expensive. So, the failure to tackle polio has many diverse implications on the country’s economy.

In addition to this, beggary is on the rise in Pakistan. It has many other reasons but the failure of the country to root out polio is contributing to beggary. Physically disabled children fail to become good citizens. Their poor parents cannot afford their expenditures as they deserve special care. Resultantly, they are forced to beg to meet their both ends. It is a suitable occupation for such children because they are not capable of doing something else. In this way, polio has a link with increasing beggary in the country.

Moreover, the county’s failure in getting rid of polio virus has resulted in restrictions on Pakistani travelers. No Pakistani is allowed to enter another county without having a polio clearance certificate. They are bound to present their medical reports before entering any other region. Pakistanis are considered the exporters of polio virus. Polio free countries fear that this disease can affect their children. So, to save themselves, they have banned international travelling of Pakistanis without showing fitness certificates. It is the worst of all effects because the country faces humiliation.

Furthermore, the virus is also resulting in segmentation among Pakistani public. People are badly divided in two groups. Some think that polio vaccination is not a good thing while the majority is in favor of polio drops. The two groups have arguments to support their stance. This situation has challenged the unity of Pakistani people. Some even take refuge to violence when they fail to convince others with logic. Killing of polio workers is the best example in this regard.

There is no denying the fact that present condition is much appalling, but with the help of constant efforts and strong political will, it is still reversible. As every problem has some remedies, the best solution to this problem is the seriousness of government to deal this issue. It is the most essential ingredient to convert this failure into success. There is a dire need of prioritizing this issue. The government should focus on eradicating polio. It should declare health emergency in this regard. The problem must he given due attention.

In a similar fashion, correct interpretation of religion is the need of hour. It can do much in this regard. The religion must be interpreted in its true spirit. Prominent religious scholars should play their role in eradication of polio. They should teach people that polio drops are not forbidden in Islam. Public must know that healthy life of their children is hidden in this vaccination. Mullahs that misguide people should be punished. It will be a good step towards polio-free Pakistan.

Moreover, public awareness campaigns are needed to control this disease. People should be taught about the severe implications of this virus. They must be inculcated that their children’s vaccination against polio is their first and foremost duty. There should be no negligence because it is a matter of serious concern. Celebrities can do much in this regard. They should request and motivate people to get their children vaccinated. Anchor persons, columnists, intellectuals, politicians, scholars, and players, especially cricketers can also do the same.

Furthermore, the condition can be made less appalling by at least controlling its spread. Its spread must be checked. Several steps can be taken in this regard. City to city restrictions is necessary to get rid of this problem. A polio affected child should not be allowed to leave his home city. In the same way, a specific area having more polio cases should be banned for healthy children. If travelling in these areas becomes indispensable on some occasion, it should only be allowed after checking fitness certificate. A check on spread of polio virus will also be an achievement.

In addition to this, a crackdown against rebels can prove fruitful. Anyone who resists polio vaccination should be considered an enemy of the state. Such kind of people must be dealt with iron hand. They should be punished for their fault. Exemplary punishment in this regard can help improving the condition. The use of power can produce desired results. Government should establish its writ. There should be no soft comer for people who are a hurdle in polio eradication.

After taking the abovementioned steps, polio workers should be sent door to door to vaccinate children. All this can be done under complete security. Every team of polio worker should be guarded by police. This act will protect the lives of polio vaccinators. It will also show seriousness of government to resolve the issue. No one will dare attacking the workers if this is the case. It is a pertinent as well as a viable solution.

Finally, incentives should be given to. the parents who get their children vaccinated regularly. Government can announce cash reward for such parents for example, free schooling of a child. On the other hand, there must be some penalties for

parents who do not get their children vaccinated. Government can bring these parents behind the bars. They can also be punished in several other ways. For instance, their electricity and gas connections can be disconnected. If these parents are government employees, they can be demoted as well as their salaries can be deducted. Strict legislation is needed in this context.

To sum up, it can be said that Pakistan has failed to eradicate polio. It is a bitter truth. Implications of this failure are countless. Pakistan has been affected badly by this virus. The failure to cure this disease has several reasons. Official negligence has lion’s share in this regard. Previous governments did not give attention to the issue. Same is the case with the present one. Concrete, logical, and rational steps are missing to control polio. It appears that curbing polio is not the priority of our government. Tangible developments are always given preference in this country. One should be ashamed of the fact that polio virus is found nowadays in only two to three countries, including Pakistan. Efficient policies of government and strong political will can change the fate of the country. If these two elements are combined, it can be hoped that Pakistan will be polio free within few years.




  • Media is not playing its required and desired role in Pakistan
  • Media is not practical. It is partial and biased.

Merits of Media in Pakistan

  • It is a source of Information
  • keeps check on government’s policies
  • Media points out problems and their solutions
  • Media improves knowledge of current affairs
  • It Connects us to the whole world
  • Media discloses shortcomings of administration
  • It promotes norms and values of democracy                                                                                                                                
  • Media is a hindrance in the way of nepotism, feudalism, and dictatorship It promotes culture

Demerits of Media in Pakistan

  • Media is not impartial
  • Pakistani media jumps to conclusions quickly
  • Media spreads sensationalism
  • It exploits poor masses
  • Media is glamorizing terrorism in Pakistan
  • Sometimes, it discloses secretes of state
  • There is lack of research before reporting


  • Media needs to become patriotic and impartial in Pakistan
  • Authenticity and objectivity of the news should not be compromised at any cost
  • There is a dire need to promote true features of products in advertisement
  • It is the duty of media to abide by PEMRA rule
  • Media should not give coverage to terrorist ideology
  • It is desirable never to compromise on secrets of state



There is no denying the fact that the role of media is controversial in Pakistan. Media is not Playing its required and desired role in the country. Media is expected to follow a certain code of ethics. Unfortunately, in Pakistan, the situation is reverse. Media is not practical and impartial. It is biased and intrudes into people’s personal affairs. A few of the news channels support government blindly. On the contrary, some of the news channels unduly criticize the government. Same is the case with different newspapers having appreciable number of readers. It is quite annoying that media in Pakistan spreads sensationalism. Every piece of news has become breaking news in the country. Authenticity and accuracy of the news is compromised for the sake of rating. Sometimes, the role of media is praiseworthy in highlighting the issues which need immediate attention of the government. Media also throws light on corruption bribery, nepotism, despotism, aristocracy, and perjury in society. Such steps have proved fruitful in most of the cases. Though media becomes voice of voiceless yet there is lot to be done in this regard. It is considered fourth pillar of state. Media is not only for communication; it can teach, guide, and advise people to bring everlasting change in the country. Media acts like a watchdog in developed countries of the world. It acts like a critic in society by critically analyzing governmental policies. Perhaps, media in Pakistan is undergoing a learning  stage. It can play logical, rational, and impartial role in the social, political, economic, and moral uplift of the masses. Government needs to make it sure that media follows ethics of journalism. Only then, media can protect the rights of suppressed and downtrodden.

Though role of media is not up to the mark, yet it has some merits. Twenty-first century is the age of knowledge and information. Media is one of the major sources of information in the world. Media in Pakistan also keeps people aware of day-to-day happenings in the world. People come to know about a particular incident through media. They are also informed about ups and downs in the life of different countries. Credit goes to media that a piece of information spreads like a wildfire. Media also informs people about state policies. As a result, people can decide objectively whether governmental policies are in their favor or not. Certain businessmen, lawyers, teachers, and writers also get valuable information from media houses. Hence, it can be said that People know what is happening in their surroundings because of media.

Moreover, media points out various problems the country is faced with. In past,  many issues were not highlighted because media was not active. Nowadays, various newspapers and TV channels throw light on the miseries which people are confronting in daily life. Many a time, administrators take stem action against discrepancies which media reveals. People come out of their houses to protest when there is power failure in the country. Stakeholders are forced to address people’s concerns due to positive role of media. Sometimes, media channels hold debates to find out real solutions of persistent issues in society.

Similarly, media promotes norms and values of democracy in the Country. Previously, it was much easier for dictators to impose martial laws. There was no freedom of speech and expression in dictatorial regimes. Currently, it is not that much easier to derail democracy in Pakistan. Political leaders become aware of every conspiracy against democracy. Media also plays a vital role in maintaining civil-military balance in the county. Media brings to light any kind of rigging during election. It also guides politicians to bring electoral reforms in the country. Such steps are strengthening democratic forces in the land of resilient.

Meanwhile, media educates masses on several issues. People come to know what is good or bad for them through media. Suddenly, certain diseases break out in different parts of the world. Media teaches people how to remain safe from such fatal diseases. Different precautionary measures are discussed for prevention from these diseases. Someone has rightly said, “Prevention is better than cure.” Media also promotes manners and values to upgrade standards of living.

Likewise, media keeps check on governmental policies. It is true that every government has its own agenda. There is no continuity in governmental policies in Pakistan. A government supports privatization. While other discourages it as it is not in national interest. People come to know about the intentions of policy makers through this platform. Media also unveils corruption scandals to save public money from going astray. So, it can be opined that vibrant role of media forces policy makers to formulate policies in the favor of nation.

In addition to this, media entertains people. People feel tired after working daily in this world of strife and struggle. They need amusement and entertainment at home. Media is there to help them get rid of frustration and depression. Media broadcasts many comedies shows. Different actors perform in these programs. They make people laugh through their wit and humor. Someone has said, “Laughter adds color to life.” In this way, media helps people in conquest of happiness through entertainment.

Finally, media is the torchbearer of Pakistani culture. It gives coverage to various cultural events. People of different regions of the country are introduced with one another’s cultures. People of Punjab come to know about importance of ‘Topy’ and Ajrak in Sindhi culture. They also understand what kind of dishes their country fellows want to have in the same way, a person sitting in Sindh is informed that ‘Attan’ is a traditional dance which is the soul of Pashtun culture. It is media which highlights specific culture of brave Baloch of Pakistan. People are told what the likes are and dislikes of great Baloch. So, it can be said that media ensures cultural harmony in the land of Quaid.

Everything has pros and cons in the world. Similarly, media has a few demerits as well. It would not be wrong to say that Pakistani media is not impartial. Media does not act as a solicitor, but it tends to become a stakeholder to the case. Geo and ARY news channels are glaring examples in this regard. During, Imran Khan’s sit-in in Islamabad, the Geo news blatantly supported government of Pakistan. It crossed all the limits of sanity in criticizing Imran’s stance. Contrary to this, the ARY news completely favored Imran Khan’s views. Even a lay man could understand that both channels were at fault. They were involved in yellow journalism. Both the channels maligned impartial role of media which can do wonders in the world.

Pakistani media jumps to the conclusions quickly. No one can deny the fact that it is compulsory to check the correctness of news before reporting it. A person’s image and respect are very important in life. Someone says that self- respect lost once cannot be regained. But media in Pakistan never hesitates in starting trial of a person. It declares him a traitor in one case. The same media makes a person hero in the blinking of an eye. It seems that media lacks rationality. Emotions devoid of rationality can bring chaos and anarchy in society.

Besides it, media in Pakistan exploits poor people. Media depicts elite lifestyle in different commercials. It advertises costly products which poor people cannot afford to buy. Children force their parents to buy them such products. Parents do not have the capacity to purchase what their children wish. It gives rise to frustration. Many white-collar snobs purchase unnecessary items which disturb their budget. In this way, media creates problems for the people.

 Apart from it, media spreads sensationalism and immorality in Pakistan. Every  news channel is running behind the news. No one cares about the consequences of a Particular piece of news. Every news channel tries to win over the other. As a result, they broadcast manipulated news to grab the attention of audience at the cost of merit, Actors in different dramas wear vulgar dresses. They follow western culture which is spreading Vulgarity. Even stories of different dramas carry vulgar themes which badly affect thinking of young generation. They often violate PEMRA Rules which is highly objectionable.

Media is glamorizing terrorism in Pakistan. Many terrorists are allowed to represent their point of view before public. They are contacted telephonically to disclose the reason of a particular bomb blast. Media reports the statements of terrorist’s spokesperson like Shahid-Ullah Shahid. They launch their videos on air with attractive guns and rocket launchers. So, such a showoff of different weapons can detract young generation. They may idealize terrorists and finally fall a prey to their heinous acts. There is no doubt that there should be freedom of speech. It is well said that freedom of speech should have limitations.

Lastly, media also discloses secretes of state. Everyone has a right to get  information. This right is exercised to discuss sensitive matters. Few media channels get excess to classified data and hold discussion publicly. In some of the cases, reporter reports a particular policy decision before its official announcement. It is against the principal objectives of journalism. Such an approach causes an irreparable loss to the state.

      The abovementioned demerits can be addressed through pragmatic steps and sincerity. Media should be patriotic and impartial. An impartial media can analyze facts critically. It can report them in a perfect manner. Only rational approach brings progress and prosperity in the county. The current situation of the country demands neutral media anchors and their owner. Impartial role of media is necessary for the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This approach can strengthen the roots of democracy and justice in the county.

Correctness, objectivity, and authenticity of the news make it perfect. Civilized nations do not take things for granted. A civilized media makes it sure before reporting whether a piece of news is true or not. In this way, facts can be brought before public and leaders are able to take practical steps to overcome correctly reported issues. Government can keep an eye on channels which compromise on the correctness of news. This attitude can help root out yellow journalism.

In the same way, media should not feel shy off reporting harsh realities of life before masses. Advertisement can be done in a practical way. Only those features are to be advertised which different products carry. People are often deceived while purchasing the products advertised on different news channels. They regret their choices when the projects are of low quality. Thus, advertisements devoid of logic should be curtailed to facilitate people.

Besides that, sensationalism and immorality can be avoided through abiding by PEMRA Rules. PEMRA Rules are there but their execution has become a distant dream. Civil society has an instrumental role to play here. It can persuade directors and producers to use proper dresses to maintain decency in media Sensationalism can also be dealt with if news channels do not sacrifice ethics of journalism for the sake of money and rating can also warn and take strict action against those channels which violate its rule and spread sensationalism in society.

Media is the fourth pillar of state. It is the responsibility of print and electronic media to be careful while selecting the content to be reported. This is Pakistan’s media, and it should not allow terrorists to propagate their ideology in Pakistan. The showoff of lethal weapons is not desirable. The young generation should be told about books and schools not weapons. It is a reality that educated ones can change the fate of nation. Pakistan needs educationists not terrorists. Pakistan can win through power of pen not sword. It is said, “The pen is mightier than the sword.” So, there is no need to run on air which terrorist wish to propagate in society.

Finally, media is here to protect the secrets of state not to disclose them. Government Can stop newspapers and TV channels from discussing secrets of the state. Media avoids doing such things in the developed world. No one can be allowed to reveal intentions of government before time in Pakistan. There is a dire need to strictly punish those who are involved in this heinous crime. Only then, Pakistani media can become mature and beneficial for the county.

To sum up, media has an important role to play in the modem world. Media has a power to influence public opinion. It seems that Pakistani media has absolute power. It is said, “Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” So, this absolute power has corrupted Pakistani media. Though, it has a few advantages, yet its disadvantages have created many problems in the country Media is irresponsible in Pakistan which has widened the gap between public and state. Those countries in which media plays positive role have reached the height of glory. In Pakistan, the story is opposite. Most of the channels are run by influential businessmen who have their vested interests to be protected. Media owners sacrifice the interest of state and always try to find their own axe. Impartial and patriotic role of media is a prerequisite for a brighter future of the nation. Government has an important role to play in this regard. It is high time government took steps to curtail negative role of media. This stance can save the county from numerous unwanted challenges.




  • Twenty-first century is neither the age of reason nor devastation completely

Factors Indicating Devastation

  • Wars among countries
  • Increased crime rate due to overpopulation
  • Natural Health hazards
  • Weapons of mass destruction
  • Establishment of terrorist organizations
  • Negative role of great powers
  • Pollution
  • Weakening family system

Factors Indicating Reason

  • Revolution in the field of education
  • End of dictatorial regimes in many countries
  • Positive role of NGOs in social and moral uplift of human beings
  • Increasing trends of entertainment
  • Death of superstitions   
  • Phenomenon of search and research
  • Respect for freedom of thought and expression


Twenty-first century is neither the age of devastation nor the age of reason completely. It is not true in full term. It has both aspects. The century is the age of devastation and at the same time it is the age of reason as well. There are several indicators to prove the two. For instance, wars among different countries suggest that the present century is the age of devastation. Wars have wreaked havoc in human life. Many people have lost their lives. Terrorism is a burning issue. Many people are killed in different terror attacks on daily basis. Same is the case with natural disasters and their implications. Sometimes, these disasters seem out of control. They result in destruction at a large scale. On the contrary, 21st century is the age of reason and enlightenment as well. Several new and specialization in the field of education are the evidence. Dictatorial regimes have been ended in many counties. However, much can be done to expand the areas of reason and enlightenment. Same is true for minimizing devastation. There is still enough room for betterment and development.

 There are many factors that indicate that 21st century is the age of devastation. War among different counties is one of them. These also include wars within the countries. War on terror and liberation movements are glaring examples in this regard. There is not a single month in this century in which counties are not involved in war with one another. It is sad but true. It is giving impetus to devastation. Advanced technology has made wars more devastating. Missiles are of long-range. Drones are accurate and explosives are deadly. All these technologies are used against opponent countries. Powerful countries suppress the weak ones. Frequent bombardment of Israel on Palestine is a case in point. NATO forces have also ruined Afghanistan. Moreover, 9/11 is also an indent of this century which is the most devastating one. It caused much devastation. All these examples prove that 21st century is the age of devastation.

Furthermore, population has also reached an alarming stage in this century. Owing to developed technology and revolution in medical science, mortality rate has been controlled to a large extent. This condition has resulted in overpopulation. Eventually’ population explosion has given birth to a number of problems. Increasing crime rate is one of them. Governments lack resources so; they are unable to facilitate public by

providing them job opportunities. Resultantly, unemployed people loot and plunder others to meet their both ends. That is why, there is an environment of lawlessness in many countries, especially in the third world countries. People feel fear to come out of their homes. This situation has gone from bad to worse in 21st century. It is responsible for such kind of moral as well as economic devastation. So, there is no doubt that this century is the age of devastation.

Likewise, natural disasters are also here to prove this devastation. Twenty-first century has witnessed several natural disasters. These calamities include tsunamis, typhoons, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, and floods. They have wreaked havoc in terms of men and material. Earthquake in Pakistan in 2005 claimed thousands of human lives. Infrastructure was also destroyed. Same was the case with floods in 2010 that followed an unprecedented devastation. Several cattle, crops and buildings besides human beings suffered owing to flood. Same is true for many other types of natural calamities. So, 21st century is the age of destruction in the context of natural disaster as well.

Similarly, the current century is also responsible for devastating effects on human health. Health hazards are at their peak. The condition is worsening day by day. Twenty-first century is the age of science as well. Scientists have invented many new things. These inventions led towards industrialization. Industrial plants are affecting human beings in several ways. Global wanning is the result of rapid industrialization. Air, noise, soil, and water pollution are other examples. Our air and soil have become toxic. Several new diseases like dengue fever have emerged. Such kind of diseases was no present in previous centuries. Twenty-first century has become a perilous century for human health too.

In the same way, man has developed weapons of mass destruction which pose a threat to the existence of the world. Currently, more than nine countries of the world are nuclear powers. These countries develop new missiles every year. Missiles can destroy the whole world in case of war between two nuclear states. World has already witnessed destruction caused by nuclear weapons in 1945. This is irony of situation that man invented weapons for his security. The same weapons have become alarming for the world peace. As per a report, the US possesses more than hundred nuclear bombs which are enough to destroy the whole world.

 Likewise, 21st century has witnessed establishment of many terrorist organizations. These terrorist organizations are threatening man’s peaceful existence in the world.

Forces of terror kill dozens of innocent people daily. Third World countries are burning in the fire of terror. ISIS is a glaring example in this regard. This terrorist organization has carried out several terror attacks in different parts of the world. It has even not spared capitals of western counties. It has killed many people in France and Belgium. Hence, it can be said that 21st century is the age of devastation.

 In this century, the role of great powers has been controversial. America along with its allies invaded Afghanistan after 9/11. This act resulted in massive destruction. Many civilians were killed for no reason. Again in 2003 great powers attacked Iraq in the name of weapons of mass destruction. There was bloodshed and chaos. Such acts proved fruitless as Iraq and Afghanistan are still burning. Great powers capture the resources of weak countries which results in hate against west. Such a situation can be devastating for the world.

Apart from it, there has been rapid industrialization and urbanization in this century. There is economic competition in the world. Consequently, more industries are  established. These industries affect atmosphere. As a result, Ozone layer is depleting. It may be deadly for the mother earth. Similarly, many people have migrated to cities in 21st century. There is increase in population of cities which adds to the woes of urban dwellers. More vehicles bum more fossil fuel. There is noise pollution which is a bad omen for the survival of mankind.

In the same fashion, weakening family system is an offshoot of 21st century. This  is an age of materialism. There is no one for anyone. People are spending a life of hurry and worry. Parents have no time for their children. They are only busy in earning money. Children do not have respect for their parents. This gives rise to a gap between parents and children. As a result, family system is weakening which is devastating for the modern world.

            On the contrary, there are many factors that indicate that 21st century is the age of reason. It is true in many spheres of life. Take education as an instance. This field has been revolutionized. This century has introduced a fashion of specialization. Each subject has many branches. One can master any branch of science and literature. Same is the case with medical field. Doctors are specialists of their fields and of diseases’ Moreover, we have moved from the age of knowledge to the age of intelligence. All these things indicate that 21st century is the age of reason.

In addition to this, democracy is prevailing in the world. Many dictatorial regimes

have been brought to end in this century. This indicator is strong enough to support the

that twenty first century is the age of reason. Now some dictators are not in power. Idea people are aware of their rights, and they demand their due share in power. Pakistan is also an example of this change. Social media combined with the internet and YouTube done much in this regard. Now people take interest who is ruling them. They throw bas out those rulers who fail to deliver. All this suggests that twenty first century is the age of reason.

Besides, several NGOs are working for social and economic uplift of human beings. Such types of organization are functioning in various underdeveloped countries.

Human rights activists are giving impetus to enlightenment. They are raising their voice against gender inequality. They are also the advocates of female education. NGOs are of the view that women should equally participate in the development of their country. Now women rights are not only considered rights but human rights too. ‘He or She’ campaigns are on the rise. All this was lacking in previous centuries. It suggests that 21st century is the age of reason.

The increasing trend of entertainment is also a signal that the present century is the age of enlightenment and reason. TV serials and movies are in abundance. Social media and television cable networks are also contributing to it. Cinema houses and parks are considered crucial for new housing societies. These trends are mounting day by day. Families’ visits to theatres have been no more an anomaly nowadays. It was not so few centuries before. These instances also propose that 21st century is the age of reason.

Adding more to it, 21st century has proved the death of superstitions. People are no more superstitious. Earlier, they believed in cruel custom. They followed rituals blindly. Now they question the authenticity of everyone’s point of view. People do not take things for granted. Even a child question everything. In fact, people have become logical and rational. They find reason behind every phenomenon. People are not afraid of black cat or No.13. So, 21st century is the age of reason.

There is no doubt that 21st century is the era of search and research. People travel long distances in search of knowledge. There is love for knowledge and learning. It is rightly said that knowledge is power. People are in search of knowledge to get real Power. Certain research is being conducted in different fields of life. It is the result of research that man has found chances of life on Mars. Research in the field of medical science has done wonders. Scientists are about to develop the vaccine for the treatment of AIDS.

Finally, this century is the age of freedom of speech and thought. Everyone is free to express what he believes in the limits of sanity. People are free to raise their voice for their rights. In past, it was not possible. Nowadays, media and press enjoy complete freedom in most of the parts of the world. Media has become powerful. It is the fourth pillar of state. Media finds reason behind every governmental move. The emergence of social media makes it clear that 21st century is the age of reason.

To pen it off, it cannot be confidently asserted that 21st century is the age of devastation. Same can be said about the age of reason. A single phenomenon cannot be fully proved. Both sides of the picture must be taken into consideration. The truth is that 21st century is a combination and mixture of two things. It is the age of destruction as well as the age of enlightenment. However, several concrete steps can be taken to lessen the percentage of desolation. Enlightenment can be given a boom as well. There is much space to work on both the aspects.




  • Corruption is rampant in Pakistan.
  • It is found in every department of the state and at all levels from peon to the head of department.

Causes of Corruption

  • Illiteracy
  • Feudal mindset
  • Poverty
  • Lack of transparency
  • Absence of self-accountability
  • Poor role of civil society and NGOs
  • Politicization of government departments
  • Scarcity of strict laws
  • Passive role of corruption checking departments
  • Discretionary powers of governmental Absence of awareness among the masses Conducive culture for corruption
  • Effects a Corruption breeds bad governance
  • It hampers economic development
  • It augments crime rate in society
  • It adds to the woes of common man
  • It increases dependence of country on other states
  • It reduces cost recovery ratio
  • It erodes social capital
  • Corruption can propel disasters of great magnitude
  • It hinders political evolution of the country
  • it creates political instability
  • It tarnishes the image of country e a It affects FDI


  • Perfect rule of law can mitigate corruption
  • Feudalism should be done away with sustained and effective democracy makes corruption impossible
  • Poverty and illiteracy can be extirpated to root out corruption
    Active role of investigative media and NGOs can nip this evil in the bud
  • Active and independent judiciary can make the country corruption free
  • Suitable salaries of public servants will discourage corruption
  • Role of civil society, writers and literates can put an end to corruption



Corruption is rampant in Pakistan. It is prevalent in every field in the country. It casts dire consequences on politics, economy, development, and social life of people. It hinders the way of progress and prosperity in the country. It is a worldwide phenomenon. Many countries of the world are faced with this issue. Pakistan needs to curtail the menace of corruption to •progress in the modern world. Otherwise, it will not be able become a developed country. Some people believe that only government servants are involved in corruption. But the reality is that the whole nation is facing this issue. One may easily find corruption in different fields of life. This cancer can only be cured when

every citizen stands against it. It is said, “Where there’s a will, there’s a way.”

Illiteracy generates corruption. An illiterate person is deprived of the sense of differentiating between right and wrong. He is not aware of his rights. He wants to earn money without caring for its means. An illiterate person easily falls a prey to criminal activities to fulfil his desires. He also pays bribes to save himself from punishment for his crimes. So, illiteracy favor corruption.

Feudal mind-set is also responsible for corruption in Pakistan. Feudal lords to get their material ends use government officials by offering them bribes. They hinder the way of education and development in their area. Such activities are a threat to their feudal supremacy. So, feudal mind-set is causing corruption in the country. Poverty also breeds corruption. Poor people want to get rid of poverty. They want to become rich overnight. They run behind the money and cross moral values for its attainment. To fulfil their desires, they snatch the rights of others.

Similarly, lack of transparency is also responsible for corruption. Corrupt officials misuse their powers and do not follow a transparent way of executing their official work. They do not use public funds for the betterment of common man. They embezzle these funds to achieve their whims and wishes. In this age of materialism, people lack sense of self-accountability. People have forgotten that one day they will have to answer Allah Almighty for their deeds. Corrupt people do not sweep before their own doors and accuse others of corruption.

Poor and irresponsible role of civil society and other social organizations encourage corruption. Civil society does not check corrupt practices in government departments and private organizations. This irresponsible attitude fails to hinder the way of monstrous corruption. Politicization of government departments also fosters corruption. Government officials get their transfers and postings with the help of politicians. Politicians use such officials for their own ends. Corrupt politicians want the officials of their own choice in their constituencies. They force the government officials to work according to their dictation. They do not bear an honest officer who does not follow their commands. They force such an officer to leave a particular area by getting him transferred.

Likewise, discretionary powers of government officials are a key to corruption. It is rightly said, “Authority corrupts and absolute authority corrupts absolutely.” Owing to absolute power in their hands, corrupt officers humiliate masses. They force them to  pay bribes even for their rights. Thus, absolute power in the hands of corrupt officers is a key to corruption. The laws in the country are not strict to deal with the corrupt practices of corrupt people. There are flaws and loopholes in the laws regarding corruption. Corrupt officials are not dealt with strict laws. Rather, they are not accounted for it.

Passive role of corruption checking departments gives rise to corruption. The departments like Anti-Corruption and FIA have failed to root out corruption. These departments are themselves corrupt. They set free corrupt officials after getting bribes. So, the corruption checking departments have patronized corruption. Lack of awareness among masses has also increased the curse of Corruption. People are not aware of their rights. They are forced to offer bribes even for their legitimate work. This lack of awareness adds fuel to fire.

Furthermore, culture is conducive for corruption in Pakistan. A corrupt person instead of being ashamed of his act feels proud of his corrupt deeds. People are respected due to their wealth and not because of their character, this phenomenon leads corrupt people to become proud of their wealth. Besides, whistle-blowers are not protected for exposing corruption in several departments. Government offers no protection to such people. They are kidnapped or killed. In some cases, they are thrown out of the country. So, monster of corruption remains unaffected.

As every problem has some effects, corruption breeds bad governance. Corrupt officials are not sincere with their duties. They do go out of the way and sacrifice rule of law. Consequently, bad governance is generated. So, corruption breeds bad governance. Corruption hampers economic development in the country. The funds for public welfare and developmental projects are embezzled. Thus, the public money goes into the pockets of corrupt people and development does not take place in the country.

Apart from it, corruption augments crime in society. Corrupt officials in judiciary and police sell justice. Criminals commit crimes because they know they will be able to buy law by offering bribes. Thus, crime rate increases which disturbs the fabric of society. Common people suffer at the hands of criminals. So, corruption augments crime society. It adds to the woes of common man. Common man is badly affected by corruption Influential people buy law and easily get their ends served. But a layman must pass through procedures which are corrupt. He even must pay for small things. So, corruption adds to the difficulties of common man.

Corruption increases country’s dependence on other states. Corruption in the management of resources and collection of taxes badly affects budget of the country. As a result, country must take loans and depends on other countries for financial assistance. corruption reduces cost recovery ratio. Country invests in several projects to get benefit out of them. But corruption in the executing process increases expenditures. Thus, the country must accept low recovery of cost.

Besides that, it erodes social capital and people lose their trust on the state and its institutions due to corruption. Their patriotism level goes down. Brain drain also takes place. So, corruption erodes social capital. Corruption can propel disasters of great magnitude. Corruption in construction department has long-lasting effects. The use of defective material results in collapse of buildings. In these incidents, human lives are lost, and property receives huge setback too. In this way, corruption can propel disasters of great magnitude.

Corruption hinders political evolution in the country. Corrupt political parties sell their tickets. These tickets are purchased by non-elected and vicious people. They also buy electorates to make their success obvious. Such bad character people become a part of assemblies. There, they do not represent people but their own mafias. They work to achieve their material benefits. These non-elected representatives reduce the changes of political evolution in the country.

In the same manner, corruption brings political instability in the county. Corrupt politicians want to achieve their own goals. Corrupt officials have their own ends to be materialized. So, there occurs a competition between the corrupt politicians and the corrupt officials to gab the resources of the country which results in clash of institutions. This clash of institutions gives vent to political instability in the country.

 Corruption tarnishes the image of country in the world. Organizations like Transparency International rank countries according to their level of transparency or corruption. In this way, corruption in the country is highlighted at intonational level which tarnishes the image of state. Country loses its respect owing to corruption. It reduces FDI in the country. International companies, investors and states do not take interest in investing and establishing their business units in corrupt prevailing system. Corruption free system is necessary for attracting FDI. A corrupt system itself impedes the flow of FDI in the country.

As every problem has some remedies, Perfect rule of law can mitigate corruption. Strict observance of law and exemplary punishments to corrupt people can help in this regard. Violators of law can never be exempted. They can be subjected to severe punishments. So, rule of law can make Pakistan corruption free.

In addition, feudalism should be done away with to save Pakistan from prevalent corruption. Feudal lords never let education flourish and prosper in their areas. They want to keep people illiterate for the maintenance of their supremacy. They never allow economic development in rural areas and thus breed corruption. Feudalism must be curtailed to make Pakistan corruption free.

Sustained and effective democracy makes corruption impossible. In democratic set up, the distribution of power is equal which hinders the way of corruption. Moreover, strict opposition keeps an eye over the policies of ruling party. Institutions play their role efficiently to curb corruption in society. Thus, democracy results in the death of corruption. Poverty may be called the root cause of corruption. Illiteracy adds fuel to fire. Education should be provided to each segment of society. New industries can be established for economic development. The government can take effective steps to extirpate poverty and illiteracy.

Adding more to it, positive, impartial, and patriotic role of media is the need of hour to get rid of corruption. Investigative media can put a check on the policies of government and private organizations. It can sincerely expose their weaknesses to bring improvement in their policies. Such role of media can curtail corruption in the country. Several NGOs can also be instrumental in rooting out corruption from society.

In the same fashion, an independent and active judiciary can cut the roots of corruption. Judiciary cannot only punish the wrongdoers, but it can also check activities of influential people involved in corruption. Fortunately, judiciary is active and free in Pakistan. It has taken some concrete steps to abolish corruption. One can hope that it will continue its efforts to root out corruption from the country.

 Finally, public servants can be given suitable salaries to fulfil all their needs. When civil servants will have all their needs fulfilled, they cannot easily fall a prey to bribes. So, civil servants can be given handsome salaries and facilities to play their part in eradicating corruption from society. Civil society can also play a pivotal role in bringing awareness among people for their rights. People who are aware of their rights try to get their rights accordingly. They can reduce corruption in the country. The eminent writers and literati can also urge people through their writings to fight against corruption. To sum up, it can be said that corruption is rampant in Pakistan. It has wreaked havoc in the country. It is found in all the fields of life. It has certain causes. If, however, concrete steps are taken to root it out, it will lose its ground forever.




  • Indeed, reading is full of pleasure which helps man remain happy and successful in life

Supporting Arguments

  • Reading is a great source of information
  • Reading improves one’s knowledge about different fields of life
  • It enables man to differentiate between right and wrong
  • Reading keeps one updated about day-to-day happenings of life
  • It makes one courageous to face grim realities of life
  • Reading polishes, one’s critical sense
  • Man learns different lessons after reading historical books
  • It is reading which enriches one’s ideas
  • Continuous reading helps one build up strong vocabulary
  • The first revelation of the Holy Quran starts with the word ‘Iqra’ which means to read
  • People in Pakistan are backward because they are away from books
  • Muslims greatly influenced the world when they had thirst of reading



Indeed, reading is full of pleasure which helps man remain happy and successful in life. Reading entertains the reader to get rid of boredom of fife. Normally, a reader has a positive approach towards different issues of life. Reading inculcates the art of multitasking in a reader. A good reader has a versatile approach towards life. In fact, an avid reader can become a good writer. Reading helps him become an eloquent speaker. He can express his ideas and beliefs through his knowledge which comes from reading. Sir Francis Bacon once said,” Reading maketh a full man; and writing an exact man.” So reading is necessary to improve one’s writing skills. History has witnessed great writers like, William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Khalil Gibran. All these became world renowned writers because of their love for reading. In this post modem era, people are attracted towards modem inventions and gadgets. They do not find time to read books of different authors. Presently, habit of reading is not the priority of people. Social media websites and modem machines cannot keep man happy for a long time. As a result, people are suffering from depression and dissatisfaction. On the other hand, reading can provide them mental and spiritual solace. Different writers share varied experiences, funny stories and eye-catching words which keep readers happy. So, it can be confidently asserted that pleasures of reading are countless.

Moreover, reading is a great source of information. There are many writers who have written books on different subjects. These books carry a lot of information about different aspects of life. When one reads these books, one feels well informed about various phenomena of life. When a reader reads books on politics, he is informed what kind of politicians are there in the world. In the same way, when a person reads magazines and newspapers, he gets valuable information about different countries of the world.

Similarly, man remains in search of knowledge from cradle to grave. Knowledge plays an important role in upgrading the standard of one’s life. Knowledge makes man powerful. It is a light which illuminates the whole world. A reader reads about different genre of knowledge like philosophy, astronomy, science, and literature. Such reading tums a man knowledgeable. A knowledgeable person has a better understanding of life as compared to an illiterate one. Hence, reading enhances man’s knowledge.

Likewise, reading enables man to differentiate between right and wrong. A reader is always a learner. He learns new things while reading different pieces of writing. The habit of reading sharpens his sense of observation. He does not jump to conclusions immediately. He concentrates on a particular situation and then decides what to do and what not to do. Reading broadens his views about life, and he easily differentiates between good & evil.

Besides it, reading keeps one updated about day-to-day happenings of life. A reader is aware of current situation of the world. A good reader reads articles and columns daily basis. He also comes across a certain piece of news on the internet and television. When a person enquires him about any event of present era, he is completely ready to discuss it like a scholar. A good reader is aware of what is happening in Palestine and Kashmir. He also knows what steps the United Nations has taken for peace & harmony in the world.

In addition to it, reading makes a man courageous to face grim realities of life. It is reading which makes man mature and brave. A reader has knowledge about rise and fall of different nations. He knows that problem and difficulties are a part of life. He does not lose his temper when adversities knock at his door. He is not an illiterate and can handle complex situations audaciously. Therefore, man becomes bold through reading.

Apart from it, reading polishes one’s critical sense. Usually, a person having less reading can easily be influenced by different writers. He does not have his own opinion. It becomes his point of view what writer pleads. Contrary to this, a regular reader cannot be governed easily. He analyses a writer’s point of view through numerous angles. He accepts what sounds true to his logic. He criticizes and neglects the views which are worthless. Continuous reading makes him a critic.

In addition to it, man learns different lessons from reading of historical books. History has always been a source of guidance to man. When man reads about different leaders of past, he learns from their mistakes. He also tries to unearth the causes of their failure and defeat. A lucky man is he who learns from others’ experiences. Reading Pr0vides man an opportunity to save himself from downfall by observing the lives of others. It is not beyond rationally to say that a reader is a leader. Reading of history develops leadership skills in a reader.           

Reading enriches one’s ideas. When one reads philosophical authors, one has unique idea about the role of state and individual in the world. Great authors represent What life is and what it ought to be. They also discuss prevalent ill practices in society. Great authors have great minds, and they intend to purge society of immoral activities.

Reading of such writer’s masterpieces offers mature and practical ideas. At the same time, continuous reading helps one build strong vocabulary. A person who reads meets new and complex words. He finds out the meaning of these words and enhances his vocabulary. These words help him express his thoughts without any hurdle. He has enough words to write even on strange topics. While a person with scanty vocabulary cannot present himself as a good writer. Such a person is always lacking in the art of oratory. So, reading should not be avoided, if one wants to have impressive stock of words in his mind.

Besides it, the first revelation of the Holy Quran starts with the word ‘Iqra’ which means “to read”. Islam urges Muslims to read and write. The Holy Prophet (peace be  upon him) said,” Seek knowledge though you may have to travel to China.” This saying explains the importance of reading in man’s life. The Muslims d*fed their opponents in the battle of Badr. Such is the importance of reading that the prisoners were asked to teach Muslims how to read and write to get freedom. It is right to say that reading makes man skillful.

People in Pakistan are backward because they are away from books. Habit of reading is the hallmark of a civilized nation. Unfortunately, Pakistanis are away from books. They prefer to buy costly dresses and shoes rather than purchasing the books. So, Pakistanis are averse to reading. This is the reason that Pakistan lacks in research and development. Even, authors of different books do not have habit of reading. Consequently, nation is facing backwardness and there is dearth of creativity.

Finally, Muslims greatly influenced the world when they had thirst of reading. Muslims spread the light of knowledge throughout the world. They loved reading and became champions of different fields of knowledge. Muslim scientists, Jabir bin Hayan, Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khwarizmi, Bu Ali Sina, Ibn Al-Haitham and A1Razi greatly impacted the world of knowledge. They were a source of information for the west. Their books were taught in the Western universities up to 16th century. When they left reading, they became laughing stones in the world.

To conclude, it can. be said that reading plays an important role in man’s life. It is  full of pleasure and lively energies. Reading saves readers from monotony. People come to know about their fellow beings living in different parts of the world. Reading also brings man closer to nature. When one reads poetry, one feels overjoyed. The function of poetry is to guide and provide pleasure. Limerick poet-y is also there to fill man’s heart with laughter in the hours of loneliness. Dramas and novels also entertain readers. The use of satire and irony creates humorous situation. Humor adds charm to reader’s life. It is concluded that it is impossible to count pleasures of reading.

6 thoughts on “26 Most Common & Universal Essays (Topics) Asked in PMS/CSS & other Competitive Exams”

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